Flashcards in Animal Behaviour Deck (76)
What is an proximate?
Deals with how
a particular behaviour
What is an ultimate?
an animal does something,
Who was Niko Tinbergen?
A famous animal behaviour researcher who found there were two kinds of proximate and two kinds of ultimate explanation for animal behaviour.
Name the two proximate explanations:
1.What are the mechanisms that cause it? (mechanism)
2. Is the behaviour inherited or learnt?
Name the two ultimate explanations:
1: How is does it relate to the evolutionary history? (phylogeny)
2: What is the benefit to the animal's fitness? (function)
What is a hermaphrodite?
A hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes eg snails
What is a simultaneous hermaphrodite?
A simultaneous hermaphrodite (or homogamous) is an adult organism that has both male and female sexual organs at the same time.
Which animal is famous for self-fertilisation?
The banana slug
What is a sequential hermaphrodite?
Sequential hermaphroditism occurs when the individual changes sex at some point in its life eg clownfish
What is asexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism
What is courtship?
Animal courtship may involve complicated dances or touch, vocalizations, or displays of beauty or fighting to attract a mating partner.
Name the two different types of sexual conflict
Egg v sperm
Male v female
What are pheromones?
a chemical substance produced and released into the environment by an animal, especially a mammal or an insect, affecting the behaviour or physiology of others of its species.
Name the different ways in which the transmission of sounds eg songs and calls varies
Attenuation,complexity,pitch,amplification and volume
What is intraselection?
Male to male competition
What is interselection?
Name intraselection examples
Name the difference between antlers and horns
Antlers can shed whereas horns remain fixated to the skull throughout the animals life.
Name examples of interselection
Choosing based on physical appearance and general fitness.
What is sexual cannibalism?
Eating the mate after mating.
What is a social behaviour?
Activities among individuals that have fitness
consequences for both the actor as well as the
recipient(s) of the behaviour
Name the three levels of social behaviour
individuals, groups/populations, species
Example of minimum social contact
Black widows live alone until mating.
Examples of maximum social aggregation
Flocks, herds and colonies
Name some benefits of group life
Less likely to be eaten,protection,possible mating parteners
Disadvantages of group life
Have to share food/higher competition
What is a aggregation?
A group of individuals of the same species gathered
in the same place but not internally organised eg rattlesnakes gather during cold conditions to keep warm.
What is a colony?
a group of individuals belonging to the same species
which are highly integrated either by physical union
of bodies or by division into specialized zooids or
castes, or by both
What is a eusocial insect?
Castes with fixed division of labour eg Bees have queen bees and workers.