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Flashcards in Animal Form & Function Deck (94):
0

What are the FOUR (4) TISSUE TYPES?

Epithelial
Connective
Muscular
Nervous

1

This TISSUE is made up of densely PACKED CELLS and it PROTECTS, SECRETES and ABSORBS.

Epithelial Tissue

2

Name the THREE (3) different SHAPES of EPITHELIAL TISSUE.

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar

3

Name the THREE (3) different ARRANGEMENTS of EPITHELIAL TISSUE.

Simple
Stratified
Pseudo stratified

4

Identify the SHAPE and ARRANGEMENT of SKIN tissue cells.

Stratified
Squamous

5

KIDNEY TUBULES are what type of epithelial tissue?

Simple
Cuboidal

6

The RESPIRATORY TRACT is made up of what type of epithelial tissue?

Pseudo stratified
Columnar

7

The INTESTINES contain what type of epithelial tissue?

Simple
Columnar

8

This SEPARATES EPITHELIUM from UNDERLYING TISSUE.

Basement Membrane

9

What are the SIX (6) types of CONNECTIVE TISSUE?

1.) Loose Connective
2.) Fibrous Connective
3.) Cartilage
4.) Bone
5.) Adipose
6.) Blood

10

What is the FUNCTION of CONNECTIVE TISSUE? (4)

Connect
Surround
Anchor
Support

11

This part of CONNECTIVE TISSUE id a WEB of FIBERS embedded in a LIQUID, JELLY or SOLID.

Extracellular Matrix

12

What are the FUNCTIONS of the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX? (3)

Provide STRUCTURE
PROTECTION
Mechanical STRENGTH

13

What are the THREE (3) types of CONNECTIVE tissue FIBERS?

Collagenous
Elastic
Reticular

*Ch. 40 p.4 NOTES*

14

This CONNECTIVE TISSUE is the mist WIDESPREAD and found THROUGHOUT the BODY.

Loose Connective

*Ch. 40 p. 4 NOTES*

15

True or False: loose connective tissue is highly vascular.

TRUE,

LOOSE CONNECTIVE tissue is HIGHLY VASCULAR.

16

What are the FUNCTIONS of LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE? (3)

BINDS EPITHELIA to underlying tissue
NUTRIENT & WASTE REMOVAL
HOLDS ORGANS in place

17

Where is FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE found?

Tendons
Ligaments

18

This type of CONNECTIVE TISSUE is made up of DENSELY PACKED COLLAGENOUS FIBERS.

Fibrous Connective Tissue

19

This type of FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE is responsible for BINDING BONES together.

Ligaments

20

This type of FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE is responsible for ATTACHING MUSCLES to BONES.

Tendons

21

This type of CONNECTIVE TISSUE is found in JOINTS, EARS and VERTEBRATE EMBRYOS.

Cartilage

*Ch.40 p.5 NOTES*

22

CARTILAGE is made up of a RUBBERY MATRIX of _______________.

Chondroitin

23

This CONNECTIVE TISSUE makes up the SKELETON of the body.

Bone Tissue

24

BONE TISSUE is made up of ____________ CONNECTIVE TISSUE.

Mineralized

25

True or False: bone tissue is hard and brittle.

FALSE,

BINE TISSUE is HARD but NOT BRITTLE and acts as a SCAFFOLDING for the body.

26

This type of CONNECTIVE TISSUE is FOUND THROUGHOUT the BODY and contains LIPIDS.

Adipose Tissue

27

What are the TWO (2) functions of ADIPOSE TISSUE?

Stores ENERGY as FAT
PADS & INSULATES the body

28

What is the LIQUID MATRIX of BLOOD made up of?

Blood Cells (red & white)
Plasma

29

What is the FUNCTION of BLOOD?

Gas Exchange
Immune Protection
Blood Clotting

30

This TISSUE TYPE is responsible for most BODY MOVEMENT.

Muscle Tissue

*Ch.40 p.5-6 NOTES*

31

MUSCULAR TISSUE is made up of __________ cells specialized FOR CONTRACTION.

Elongated

32

What are the THREE (3) types of MUSCLE TISSUE?

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth

33

____________ MUSCLE TISSUE is VOLUNTARY.

Skeletal

34

CARDIAC MUSCLE is ____________ and found in the HEART.

Involuntary

35

This type of MUSCLE TISSUE is INVOLUNTARY and is found in ORGAN WALLS, BLOOD VESSELS and IRIS.

Smooth Muscle

36

True or False: muscle tissue is a type of connective tissue.

FALSE,

MUSCULAR TISSUE is NOT a type of CONNECTIVE TISSUE.

37

True or False: muscles work in a pushing action.

FALSE,

MUSCLES DO NOT PUSH, they OLNY CONTRACT or RELAX

38

__________ muscle tissue is STRIATED.

Skeletal

39

This TISSUE TYPE is specialized for COMMUNICATION by ELECTRICAL and chemical signals.

Nervous Tissue

*Ch.40 p.6 NOTES*

40

These cells SUPPORT NEURONS.

Glial Cells

41

The FUNCTION of nerve cells of NERVOUS TISSUE is _________ and ________.

Control
Communication

42

True or False: nervous tissue is specialized for electrical signals but not chemical.

FALSE,

NERVOUS TISSUE communicates by BOTH ELECTRICAL & CHEMICAL signals (think neurotransmitters)

43

Tissues are organized into ________.

Organs

44

Organs are organized into ___________.

Organ Systems

45

The HUMAN BODY contains ___ to ___ TRILLION CELLS

50-100

46

This system is composed of GLANDS that secrete HORMONES.

Endocrine System

*Ch.40 p.6 NOTES* (illustration)

47

NERVOUS V.S ENDOCRINE



COMMUNICATION

NERVOUS:
• electrical impulses
• neurotransmitters

ENDOCRINE:
• blood stream
• hormones

48

NERVOUS V.S ENDOCRINE



EFFECTS

NERVOUS:
• relatively LOCAL/SPECIFIC

ENDOCRINE:
• very GENERAL/WIDESPREAD

49

NERVOUS V.S ENDOCRINE



SPEED

NERVOUS:
• reacts QUICKLY
• 1-10 msec

ENDOCRINE:
• reacts more SLOWLY
• SECONDS to DAYS

50

NERVOUS V.S ENDOCRINE



END OF STIMULUS

NERVOUS:
• stops QUICKLY

ENDOCRINE:
• may CONTINUE

51

The ENDOCRINE system coordinates GRADUAL CHANGES throughout the body and sends signals for what FOUR (4) processes?

Growth/Development
Reproduction
Metabolic Processes
Digestion

52

This is the ability to MAINTAIN a STABLE/CONSTANT internal ENVIRONMENT.

Homeostasis

53

Give THREE (3) examples of HOMEOSTASIS.

Body Temperature
Blood pH
Glucose Levels

54

What are the THREE (3) components of HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL MECHANISMS?

Receptor
Control Center
Effector

55

This COMPONENT of HOMEOSTATIC control MECHANISMS monitors and DETECTS CHANGE in internal ENVIRONMENT.

Receptor

56

This COMPONENT of HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL mechanisms PROCESS INFORMATION and DECIDES appreciate RESPONSE.

Control Center

57

This is the CELL or ORGAN of HOMEOSTATIC control MECHANISMS that CARRIES out CORRECTIVE ACTION.

Effector

58

What are the TWO (2) sources of heat for THERMOREGULATION?

Internal METABOLISM
External ENVIRONMENT

59

These type of organisms rely on METABOLIC HEAT to MAINTAIN BODY TEMPERATURE.

ENDOtherms

60

These types of organisms rely on EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT to MAINTAIN BODY TEMPERATURE.

ECTOtherms

61

What are the ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES of ENDOTHERMY?

ADVANTAGE: allowance to be ACTIVE

DISADVANTAGE: use MORE ENERGY to maintain homeostasis

62

What are the ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES of ECTOTHERMY?

ADVANTAGE: ability to CONTROL body TEMPERATURE

DISADVANTAGE: AT the WILL OF the temperature of the external ENVIRONMENT

63

This is an animal's ability to CONTROL HEAT EXCHANGE with surrounding ENVIRONMENT.

Thermoregulation

64

What are the FOUR (4) PHYSICAL PROCESSES to EXCHANGE HEAT?

Radiation
Evaporation
Convection
Conduction

65

What are the FIVE (5) major THERMOREGULATORY MECHANISMS?

1.) Insulation
2.) Circulatory Adaptations
3.) Evaporative Cooling
4.) Behavioral Adaptions
5.) Adjusting to METABOLIC HEAT LOSS

66

This REDUCES the flow of HEAT between ANIMAL and ENVIRONMENT.

Insulation

67

Give THREE (3) examples of INSULATION.

Skin/Hair
Feathers
Layers of Fat

68

HEAT EXCHANGE is ___ to ___ times FASTER IN WATER.

50-100

69

This is the major FLOW between INTERIOR and EXTERIOR BODY.

Circulation

70

This CIRCULATORY ADAPTATION is an INCREASE in blood VESSEL DIAMETER.

VasoDIALATION

71

True or False: vasodilation usual leads to heat loss.

TRUE,

vasoDIALATION leads to HEAT LOSS and INCREASES HEAT TRANSFER.

72

This CIRCULATORY ADAPTION is a DECREASE in blood VESSEL DIAMETER.

VasoCONSTRICTION

73

True or False: vasoconstriction decreases heat transfer.

TRUE,

vasoCONSTRICTION DECREASES heat transfer and usually MAINTAINS HEAT.

74

This CIRCULATORY ADAPTATION is an ANTIPARALLEL ARRANGEMENT of BLOOD VESSELS.

Countercurrent Exchange (veins & arteries)

*Ch.40 p.10 NOTES*

75

These BLOOD VESSELS carry WARM blood FROM BODY core.

Arteries

76

These BLOOD VESSELS carry COOLER blood FROM EXTREMITIES.

Veins

77

What are the THREE (3) types of CIRCULATORY ADAPTATIONS?

VasoDIALATION
VasoCONSTRICTION
Countercurrent Exchange

78

This occurs when HEAT is LOST as water VAPOR.

Evaporative Cooling

79

Give FOUR (4) examples of EVAPORATIVE COOLING.

Panting
Sweating
Mucous Secretion
Bathing/Wallowing

80

These are changes in BEHAVIOR to deal with THERMOREGULATION.

Behavioral Adaptations

81

Give FOUR (4) examples of BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS.

1.) movement between CLIMATES
2.) HIBERNATION
3.) HUDDLING
4.) BATHING/WALLOWING

82

This is a term for HEAT PRODUCTION.

Thermogenesis

83

How can ENDOtherms ALTER THERMOGENESIS? (2)

1.) Shivering/Moving
2.) HORMONES cause INCREASE in MITOCHONDRIAL ACTIVITY

84

True or False: non-shivering thermogenesis involving hormones create ATP.

FALSE,

NON-SHIVERING thermogenesis involving hormones create HEAT, NOT ATP

85

Why do animals require energy? (4)

Growth
Repair
Activity
Reproduction

*Ch.40 p.11 NOTES* (illustration)

86

_________ ACQUIRE CHEMICAL ENERGY from ORGANIC molecules produced by OTHER ORGANISMS.

Heterotrophs

87

This is the AMOUNT of ENERGY an ANIMAL USES in a unit of time.

Metabolic Rate

88

This is the MINIMUM METABOLIC RATE for ENDOtherms.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

89

This is the MINIMUM METABOLIC RATE for ECTOtherms.

Standard Metabolic Rate (SMR)

90

HUMANS require a MINIMUM of ____ to ____ kcal per day.

1,500 to 1,650 kcal

91

An AMERICAN ALLIGATOR requires a MINIMUM of ___ kcal per day.

60 kcal

92

True or False: larger animals require more chemical energy.

TRUE,

LARGER animals require MORE CHEMICAL ENERGY.

93

True or False: smaller animals experience a greater energy cost to maintain body temperature.

TRUE,

SMALLER animals experience GREATER energy COST,

due an INVERSE relationship between ENERGY NEED and body SIZE