Animal Forms and Functions (Anatomy- {Respiratory System, Circulatory System, Excretory System, Blood,] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Animal Forms and Functions (Anatomy- {Respiratory System, Circulatory System, Excretory System, Blood,] Deck (75):

Tissues (4 types)

Epithelial(skin,internal covering); Connective(bone,cartilage,blood)


Negative Feedback

Negative Feedback is a reaction that causes a decrease in function.
Ex- If the temperature drops, the body shivers to bring up the temperature and if it is too warm, the body will sweat to cool down due to evaporation.
-A teacher marking a test to show the wrong answersBeing reprimanded for coming to work late


Positive Feedback

Positive Feedback is a reaction that causes a increase in function(labor contraction, sexual orgasm,)



Movement of gases in and out; also means cellular respiration producing ATP within mitochondria


Respiration: Thermoregulation

Obtain body heat from environment (aka cold-blooded)
Ex- invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish


Respiration: Endotherms

Generate their own body heat(aka homeotherms/warm-blooded)


Respiration: Regulatory mechanisms

Body heat is removed as liquid evaporates(endergonic)


Respiration: Regulatory mechanisms

- Metabolism

Muscle contraction and other metabolic activities generate heat.


Respiration: Regulatory mechanisms

- Surface Area

Vasodilation(widening of blood vessels) or vasoconstriction of extremity vessels results in heat retention or removal(blood flow to ears reduce body temp., countercurrent exchange keeps central parts of body warm.


The Respiratory System: Gas exchange mechanisms
Invertebrate Respiration:


Large surface areas and every cell is either exposed to environment or close to it ----> simple diffusion of gases directly with outside environment (e.g. flatworms).


The Respiratory System: Gas exchange mechanisms
Invertebrate Respiration:


Mucus secreted by earthworm provides moist surface for gaseous exchange by diffusion.

Circulatory system brings O2 to cells and waste products(CO2) back to skin for excretion.


The Respiratory System: Gas exchange mechanisms
Invertebrate Respiration:

*Grasshoppers- trachea, spiracles

(80% of all living species - insects, spiders, crustaceans(crabs)
Grasshopper - Series of chitin - lined respiratory tubules called TRACHAE open to surface in opening called SPIRACLES through with O2 enters, CO2 exits. No oxygen carrier is needed due to direct distribution and removal of respiratory gases between air and body cells;`


The Respiratory System: Gas exchange mechanisms

Plant Respiration: Photosynthesis
*What does photosynthesis produce/give off?
*What does respiration require to degrade?

Photosynthesis only takes place during the day.
- Photosynthesis produces glucose and gives off oxygen.
-While respiration requires oxygen to degrade glucose.


The Respiratory System: Gas exchange mechanisms

Plants undergoing aerobic respiration
What is the equation?
*When does anaerobic respiration take place?

Plants undergo aerobic respiration similar to animals
-Glucose -----> 2 ATP + 2 pyruvic acid.
Gases diffuse into air space by entering and leaving through STOMATA of leaves or LENTICELS in woody stems
-Anaerobic respiration takes place in simple plants when molecular oxygen is lacking.


Lungs: Gas Exchange in human
-carbonic anhydrase

CO2 is transported as HCO3 in the plasma (liquid portion of blood), catalyzed by CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.


Gas exchange in human

The oxygen exchange in the lungs takes place across the membranes of small ballon-like structures called ALVEOLI(which is attached to the branches of the bronchial passages). SURFACTANT reduces the surface tension.


Bulk flow of a air into and out of the lungs:

Diaphragm(under lungs) and intercostal muscles (btw ribs) contract/flattens increase in volume/decrease in pressure in lungs ----> bulk flow of air into lungs.


Bulk flow of a air into and out of the lungs:

Passive process; decrease in lung volume/increase in air pressure ----> air rushes out; diaphragm relaxes and expands.


Bohr effect:

A decrease in the amount of oxygen associated with hemoglobin and other respiratory compounds in response to a lowered blood pH resulting from an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.


Control of Respiration:

Central chemoreceptors in the medulla and peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid arteries and aorta monitor CO2 can of blood. In an active body, there is increased CO2 production; it enters plasma is converted to HCO3 and H+, the blood pH drop ----> respiratory rate increases.


Circulatory System
-Circulation in invertebrates

(Unicellular animal-like protists) - movement of gas through simple diffusion within cell


Circulatory System
-Circulation in invertebrates


Body walls 2 cells thick, therefore all cells in direct contact with either internal or external environment.


Circulatory System
-Circulation in invertebrates

-Open or closed circulatory system?

Most insects and molluscs

OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM - pump blood into internal cavity called HEMOCOEL( cavities called SINUSES), which bathe tissues in oxygen and nutrient containing fluid(HEMOLYMPH)


Circulatory System
-Circulation in invertebrates

Open or closed circulatory system?


CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM - blood is confined to vessels.
-Also seen in certain mollusks(octopus and squid) and vertebrates


Human Heart
-Right Atrium

Deoxygenated blood enters via superior and inferior vena cava


Human Heart
-Right Ventricle

What happens when ventricle contracts?
What happens when ventricle relaxes?

Blood moves through right AV/ tricuspid valve into right ventricle which contracts and pumps blood into pulmonary artery through the pulmonary semilunar valve.

-When the ventricle contracts, AV valve closes to prevent backflow.
When ventricle relaxes, semilunar valve prevents backflow from pulmonary artery back into ventricles


Human Heart
-Pulmonary Circuit:
*Systemic circuit

Blood pathway from right side of heart to lungs to left side of heart.
*Systemic circuit is the circulation pathway through the body between left and right sides of heart.


Human Heart
-Left Atrium

After lungs the oxygenated blood enters left atrium via pulmonary veins.


Human Heart
-Left Ventricle

After going through left AV(aka mitral or bicuspid) valve, blood from left ventricle goes to aorta through the aortic semilunar valve into rest of body.


Human Heart
Cardiac Cycle
What kind of cells is it regulated by?

They are regulated by autorhythmic cells initiate contractions independently of nerve cells.


Human Heart
Cardiac Cycle

-SA(sinoatrial) node, or pacemaker
-AV node

SA(sinoatrial) node, or pacemaker(located in upper wall of right atrium) initiates by contracting both atria and sending delayed impulse to stimulate AV(atrioventricular) node.


Human Heart
Cardiac Cycle

*Vagus Nerve

Pace of SA node is faster than normal heartbeat but parasympathetic VAGUS NERVE innervates SA node (also increases digestive activity of intestines); slows contractions.


Human Heart
Cardiac Cycle

-Systole/Diastole phase

When ventricles contract (SYSTOLE phase), blood is forced through pulmonary arteries and aorta

When they relax(DIASTOLE phase) backflow into ventricles causes semilunar valves to close.
*Stroke volume = EDV - ESV


Human Heart
Cardiac Cycle

Hydrostatic pressure

Hydrostatic pressure from heart causes blood to move through arteries.


Human Heart
Cardiac Cycle

-Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure drops as it reaches the capillaries, and reaches near zero in the venules. Blood continues to move through veins because of pumping of the heart assisted by movements of adjacent skeletal muscles, expansion of atria each time heart beats, and falling pressure in chest when a person breathes. Valves in the veins prevent backflow.


Blood Vessels (Arteries, veins, and capillaries)

-tissue its wrapped around?

Arteries - Thick-walled muscular, elastic, pump oxygenated away (except of pulmonary arteries that transport deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs). Wrapped in smooth muscle typically innervated by sympathetic NS


Blood Vessels (Arteries, veins, and capillaries)

- Arterioles

Very small, wrapped in smooth muscle, constrict/dilate to regulate BP and reroute blood - major determinant of pressure.


Blood Vessels (Arteries, veins, and capillaries)

-Capillaries:size and function

-4 methods for material to cross capillary wall :

have the smallest diameter - single layer of endothelial cells across which gases, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, and waste diffuse

4 methods for material to cross capillary wall : Pinocytosis, diffusion through capillary cell membrane, movement through pores in the cells (fenestrations), movement through space between the cells/


Blood Vessels (Arteries, veins, and capillaries)


Small blood vessels that lead back to veins, very thin and porous; drain blood from capillary bed ---> venules combine ----> veins


Blood Vessels (Arteries, veins, and capillaries)


Larger veins often have valves to aid in transport of deoxygenated blood back to heart due to fighting gravity(except for pulmonary veins and umbilical vein that carry oxygenated blood.


Lymphatic system

Lymph nodes

A second network of capillaries and veins.

LYMPH NODES - enlarged bodies throughout the lymphatic system, act as cleaning filters and as immune response centers that defend against infection.


-How much does it carry?
What kind of tissue is it?
-What percent is plasma/ blood components

4-6 liters in the human body; is a connective tissue.

55% liquid(plasma) & 45% cellular components - plasma is an aqueous mixture of nutrients, salts, gases, wastes, hormones, and blood proteins(immunoglobulins, albumin, fibroinogen)


Blood - Cellular components

Red Blood Cells / Erythrocytes

Transport Oxygen (attached to hemoglobin) and catalyze the conversion of CO2 and H20 to H2CO3. Mature red blood cells lack a nucleus, thereby maximizing hemoglobin content and thus their ability to transport O2.


Blood - Cellular components

White Blood Cells/Leukocytes

Consists of 5 major groups of disease-fighting cells that defend the body against infection.


Blood - Cellular components


Platelets (thrombocytes) are colorless blood cells that help blood clot. Platelets stop bleeding by clumping and forming.stick to damaged epithelium; attract more

-Convert FIBRONOGEN(inactive form) to FIBRIN(active form)
- Derived from megakaryocytes


Process of blood clotting

1. Platelets Contact exposed



-what does it bind with?

Binds CO. Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.



-Myoglobin curve

Single chain, protein subunit, stores O2 in muscle.
- Hyperbolic, hemoglobin curve = sigmodial. Myoglobin has higher affinity for O2 than hemoglobin. Myoglobin has no change in O2 binding over a pH range.


Cardiac Output (CO)

*Stroke Volume
*Cardiac Output
*Stroke Volume

= SV( stroke volume) X HR(heart rate)
* Stroke volume = volume of blood discharged from the ventricles with each contraction.
* Cardiac output = Volume discharged from ventricle each minute.
* Stroke volume = end systolic volume - end diastolic volume.


Blood is what kind of tissue?

Blood is a connective tissue!


The Excretory System


Is the absorption and excretion of water and dissolved substance ( solutes) so that proper water balance ( and osmotic pressure) is maintained between the organism and its surroundings


The Excretory System

Example - Marine Fish

Ex- Fresh water fish

Marine Fish - Body is hypotonic to environment ---> water is constantly lost by osmosis, constant drinking, rarely urinate, and secrete accumulated salts through gills

Fresh water fish: body is hypertonic to environment; water moves in => rarely drink, constantly urinate, and absorb salt thru gills.


Important Excretory Mechanisms:

- Contractile vacuoles

They are found in the cytoplasm of various protists, such as paramecia and amoebas. --

-These vacuoles accumulate water, merge with the plasma membrane, and release the water to the environment.


Important Excretory Mechanisms:

Platyhelminthes - Flame cells (protonephridia)

Found in various Platyhelminthes, functions like a kidney, removes waste materials.


Important Excretory Mechanisms:

* Collecting tube
* Excretory Pore

ANNELIDS - CO2 excretion directly through moist skin

- Nephrida(metanephridia): occur in pairs within each segments of annelids (earthworms). Interstitial fluid enter a nephridium through ciliated opening NEPHROSTOME and concentrate through COLLECTING TUBE due to selective secretion into surrounding coelomic fluid. Blood that surrounds tubule reabsorb.

Water, salts, urea are excreted through EXCRETORY PORE.


Important Excretory Mechanisms:

Arthropods - Malpighian tubules.

Malphigian tubules: occurs in arthropods. Tubes attached to mid digestive tract (midgut) collect body fluids from hemolymph that bath the cells; fluids include nitrogen wastes( in form of uric acid crystals; H20 salt retained. As fluid passes through hindgut, retained materials pass out of walls and wastes continue down the tract for excretion through anus.


Excretion in Humans include:
List 4 organs

Lungs, liver, skin. and kidney.


Excretion in Humans


Lungs - CO2 and H20, diffuse from blood and are continually exhaled.


Excretion in Humans
- Liver

processes nitrogenous wastes, blood pigment wastes, other chemicals, UREA prod.


Excretion in Humans
- Skin

Sweat glands in skin excrete water and dissolved salts/ regulate body temp(sweat gland fxn decreases as we age)


Excretion in Humans
- Kidney
* ureters/bladder

The KIDNEY consists of about a million individual filtering tubes called NEPHRONS.

-Two kidneys produce waste fluids, or URINE,
which pass through URETERS to the BLADDER for temporary storage. From the bladder, the urine is excreted through the URETHRA.


Excretion in Humans
Has 3 regions

Describe the process

1. Outer cortex
2. Inner medulla
3. Renal pelvis which drains to ureter. Each has many nephrons.
Kidneys --> ureter ---> bladder --> urethra. Functions to excrete waste, maintain homeostasis of body fluid volume and solute composition, and help control plasma pH.


The process of the kidney through the RENAL PELVIS
-Bowman's capsule

The nephron tube begins with a bulb-shaped body at one end, the BOWMAN's CAPSULE. A branch of the renal artery enters into the Bowman's capsule, branches to form a dense ball of capillaries called the GLOMERULUS, and then exits the capsule.


The process of the kidney through the RENAL PELVIS: Renal tubule
-Convoluted tubule.
Examples of some

Proximal convoluted tubule - active reabsorption of glucose, ions, amino acids begins.
* Drug, toxins, etc secreted into filtrate; H+ ions secreted in as well via antiport with Na+


The process of the kidney through the RENAL PELVIS: Renal tubule
- Loop of Henele(majority of nephron)
* Ascending

DESCENDING - only permeable to water (but this water is picked up by vasa recta --> medulla stays salty

ASCENDING - makes renal medulla salty - actively pumps out Na+, K+, Cl-.; impermeable to water!

This process allows reabsorption of 99% of filtrate ----> conc. urine.


The process of the kidney through the RENAL PELVIS: Renal tubule

-Distal convoluted tubule
What does it absorbed?
What does it filtrate?

Distal Convoluted Tubule - more reabsorption of glucose, ions, water, etc.
Filtrate: Na+ and Ca2+ get resorbed into body, K+/H+ / HCO3 - secreted out via tubule.


The process of the kidney through the RENAL PELVIS: Renal tubule

- Collecting Duct

The distal convoluted tube empties into the COLLECTING DUCT which descends in the same direction as the descending limb toward the center of the kidney. A signal collecting duct is shared by numerous nephrons and empties into the RENAL PELVIS, which, in turn, drains into the ureter.


Urine Formation
- Filtration

-Where does the fluid go through?
Where does it come out?

The fluid that goes through glomerulus (afferent arteriole => glomerulus => efferent) to the rest of the nephron is called filtrate, particles that are too large to filter through (blood and albumin) remain in circulatory system; passive process; driven by hydrostatic pressure of blood. So Glomerulus ---> filtrate pushed into Bowman's.


Urine Formation
-What kind of substances?
-Where is it secreted from?

Substances such as acids, bases, and ions (K+) are secreted by both passive/ active transport; secreted from PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES.


Urine Formation
- Reabsorption
-What is reabsorbed?

Glucose, salts, AA, and water are reabsorbed from filtrate & return to bloodl takes place namely in PROXIMAL convoluted tubule (active)


Urine Formation

When dehydrated volume of fluid in bloodstream is low so you need to make small amounts of concentrated urine => ADH prevents water loss by making distal tubule permeable to water/// when Blood pressure is low => aldosterone increases reabsorption of Na+ by distal nephron which increases water retention (serum Na+ increases BP)


Two hormones influence osmoregulation by regulating the concentration of salts in the urine: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

-Increases the reabsorption of water by the body and increases the concentration of salts in the urine.
-Urine becomes more concentrated as water diffuses out of the collecting duct as the filtrate descends into the renal pelvis.


Two hormones influence osmoregulation by regulating the concentration of salts in the urine: ALDOSTERONE


Increases both the reabsorption of water and the reabsorption of Na+.


Allantois =
What species is it located in?

Special sac in bird egg that keeps N waste away from embryo.


Excretion in Plants-
What does it excess?

Excess CO2, waste O2, and H20, leave by diffusion through stomata.
This process is called TRANSPIRATION.