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Flashcards in Animal Nutrition Deck (42):
1

What are nutrients?

Nutrients are the chemical substances found in food to nourish our body, to provide us with energy and also provide raw material for growth

2

Carbohydrates contain how many elements?

3 elements
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen

3

The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrate s?

2:1
More hydrogen compared to oxygen

4

Properties of monosaccharides?

3 monosaccharides are
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
One sugar molecule
Most sweet in taste
Can easily pass through membrane
All are reducing sugar

5

Properties of dissacharides?

Types of dissacharides are:
Maltose
Lactose
Sucrose
Sweat in taste but not more than monosaccharides
Can pass through membrane but with difficulty
All are reducing sugar except sucrose

6

Properties of polysaccharides?

Types are:
Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
Tasteless
Cannot pass through cell membrane
None are reducing sugar

7

1g of carbohydrates give how much energy?

1g=16kj of energy

8

Starch test?

Add 1-2 drops of iodine solution
Result: blue black = positive test

9

Reducing sugar test?

2ml Benedict solution
3-5 mins in water bath
Result= red, orange, yellow and green= positive test

10

Protein test?

2ml KOH
2-4 drops CuSO4
Result= purple, mauve positive test

11

Test for fats?

2ml ethanol
Equal amount of distilled water
SHAKE!!
Result= milky white positive test

12

Food sources of carbohydrates?

Rice, potatoes,bananas,bread,pasta etc.

13

Functions of carbohydrates?

1) Cellulose cell wall is made out of carbohydrates.
2) mucus produced in animal, which help in trapping of micro organisms is carbohydrate in nature
3) necter produced by flowers is sugary and carbohydrate in nature.
4) carbohydrates can be converted into amino acids and fats in plants

14

Saturated fat, food sources and points?

Food sources : butter,cream,lard
1) derived from animals
2) are solid at room temperature
3)high in cholesterol, not recommended for heart patients

15

Unsaturated fats food sources and points?

Food sources: almost oil, olive oil, 🌻 oil etc.
1)derived from plants
2) they are liquid at room temperature
3) they are low in cholesterol so heart patients can take it

16

What are the functions of fats?

1) stored form of energy
2) 1 gram is equal to 36 kilojoules of energy
3) fat layer that is found under skin acts as insulating material preventing heat loss from our bodies
4) there is oily layer on the skin which prevents water loss from skins surface acting as a waterproof Layer
5) needed for the synthesis in cell membrane of animal cells.

17

What elements are found in proteins?

Elements carbon hydrogen Oxygen and nitrogen must be present but sometimes Sulphur and phosphorus is also present

18

What are some food sources of proteins?

All kinds of meat, pulses and milk

19

How much Energy does one gram of protein give?

One gram of protein gives 17 kilojoules of energy

20

Name a protein deficiency disease?

Kwashiorkor.

21

Tell about the functions of protein?

1) proteins are energy giving
2) proteins are needed for growth of new cells and to replace worn out cells.
3) hormones antibodies and enzymes are all protein in nature so for the synthesis proteins are needed
4)Proteins are also needed for synthesis and formation of cell membrane in both animal and plant cell

22

What are minerals and what are their functions?

Minerals are inorganic molecules.
1) they are not energy giving or bodybuilding but I needed for proper functioning of a body.

23

What are the food sources for calcium?

Milk cheese eggs dark green vegetables and all dairy products.

24

What are the functions of calcium?

1)Calcium is needed for formation of bones and teeth
2) it helps in blood clotting.

25

What is the deficiency disease of calcium?

Rickets poor development of bones soft and bendy bones.

26

What are the food sources for iron?

Red meat, live,r dates, spinach, appleton and eggplant

27

What are the functions of iron?

1)Needed for the formation of haemoglobin a red pigment found in red blood cells which help in transportation of oxygen.
2) needed for formation of myoglobin found in muscles which help in the working of muscles

28

What is the deficiency diseases of iron?

Anaemia pale skin, tired easily, less hemoglobin

29

What are vitamins?

Vitamins are organic molecules which are not bodybuilding but are needed for the proper functioning of a body.

30

What are the food sources for vitamin C.

All citrus fruits like lemon, Orange some other fruits like guava tomatoes.

31

What are the functions of vitamins C (water solube vitamin)?

1)Food healthy skin or epithelium
2) needed for formation of intercellular substances which is found in between the cells and help in holding them together.

32

What is the deficiency disease of vitamin C?

Scurvy. Swollen bleeding gums, loosening of teeth

33

What are the food sources of vitamin D.(fat soluble)?

Egg yolk ,milk, fish liver oil, and our skin can produce vitamin D if it is exposed to sunlight

34

What are the functions of vitamin D?
Or
Why do we need Vitamin D?

1)Absorption of Calcium from small intestine.
2) stronger bones and teeth.

35

What is the deficiency disease of calcium?

Rickets soft and bendy bones, weak bones and teeth, poor bones in child development

36

Water and its food sources?

All citrus fruits, drinking water, watermelon.

37

Why do we need wate?
Or
What are the functions of water?

1) it is an important component of blood and digestive juices.
2) it acts as a medium in which various chemical reactions in a living cell takes place.
3) in blood water acts as transporting agent in which food molecules are transported from small intestine to different parts of a body it also transports excretory products from cells to excretory organs it also transfers hormones through blood to target organs.
4) water also helps in maintaining body temperature and through sweating increase body temperature comes back to normal.
4) in plants water acts as raw material for photosynthesis.
5) songs
Plants also maintain their optimum temperature through transpiration, water vapours are released and optimum temperature of plant is maintained.

38

Why do we need wate?
Or
What are the functions of water?

1) it is an important component of blood and digestive juices.
2) it acts as a medium in which various chemical reactions in a living cell takes place.
3) in blood water acts as transporting agent in which food molecules are transported from small intestine to different parts of a body it also transports excretory products from cells to excretory organs it also transfers hormones through blood to target organs.
4) water also helps in maintaining body temperature and through sweating increase body temperature comes back to normal.
4) in plants water acts as raw material for photosynthesis.
5) songs
Plants also maintain their optimum temperature through transpiration, water vapours are released and optimum temperature of plant is maintained.

39

What are the food sources for fiber?

All leafy crunchy vegetables wheat corn and some fruits.

40

What is dietary fibres?

Dietary fibre refers to the indigestible cellulose found in our bodies, it is important as it provides bulk to undigested matter and helps in proper functioning of alimentary canal.

41

What happens when you take in less fibre?

Peristalsis is a wave like Movement in alimentary canal which pushes food forward if proper peristalsis is not taking place the undigested matter can't move fast enough and too much water from undigested material will be observed by elementary canal the faeces becomes hard and difficult to remove such condition is called constipation constipation can be prevented by taking enough fibre and by regular exercise.

42

What happens when you take excess fibre?

If a person is having loose motions or diarrhoea. Fiber should be avoided because peristalsis is already fast enough and more water is coming out with faeces. Search person May dehydrate