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Flashcards in Animal Nutrition Alimentart Canal Deck (41):
1

What is ingestion?

Putting something in the mouth.

2

What is mechanical digestion?

Large chunks of food broken into smaller chunks by teeth.

3

What is chemical digestion?

In this type of digestion complex insolube and indiffusable food molecules are broken into simpler solube and diffusable molecules with the help of enzymes.

4

What is assimilation?

The utilization of absorbed material to produce new cells. Or do some function

5

What is absorption?

When simplest food molecules from elementary Canal enter blood it is called absorption.

6

What is a egetion?

Removal of undigested matter from a body is called egetion.
Undigested material leaves in the form of faeces

7

What are the functions of tongue?

1) helps in selection of food as it has taste buds.
2 pushes food under teeth, so that it can be grinded and afterwards grinded food in the form of Bolus is pushed to the next organ of alimentary canal with the help of tongue

8

What is the function of teeth in the buccal cavity.

Different types of teeth are found in buccal cavity which help in a grinding food grinding increases surface area for enzymes to act.

9

From where is saliva released?

Different salivary glands open in buccal cavity releasing saliva through duct saliva has four main components.

10

What are the four main components of saliva?

1) Water
Water acts as lubricant to make food soft so that it can be swallowed easily reducing friction.
2) Mucin
Mucin in saliva is a sticky substance which keeps grinded food together and turn it into Bolus.
3) Sodium Bicarbonate
It is an alkali which neutralizes acids produced in mouth due to bacteria and sugary substances and it also provides optimum PH for amylase
4) Amylase
Saliva has Amylase which break down starch into maltose

11

What is oesophagus?

It is a narrow tube like structure connecting buccal cavity to stomach.

12

Does any digestion take place in oesophagus and why not?

No digestion takes place in oesophagus as no enzyme is released in this tube.

13

How is food pushed in the oesophagus?

As it is a narrow tube food needs to be pushed which is provided by muscles of oesophagus.

14

What kind of muscles does oesophagus have and how do they work.

Oesophagus has two muscles.
1) circulour muscle
2) longitudinal muscle
The muscles work in a pair opposite to each other they are called antagonistic muscles.

15

What is peristalsis?

The rhythmic wave like movement which is produced by the contraction of circular muscles is called Paristalsis which helps the food to move forward.

16

What is stomach and its function?

Stomach is a muscular bag like structure which is lined with thick mucus layer, food stays for 2 to 3 hours and in its walls gastric glands are found.

17

Gastric glands function?

1)Gastric glands produce gastric juice
2) churning action also takes place in stomach so that the food mixes well with gastric juice and it is kind of a physical digestion.
E) gastric juice has HCL which kills if any microorganisms has entered in stomach with food and also provides optimum pH for enzymes in stomach.

18

What is renin?

Which is found in gastric juice convert soluble milk protein into insoluble form so that it can stay longer in stomach and can be chemically digested.

19

What is pepsin?

Pepsin which is found in gastric juice breaks down protein into polypeptides/peptone.

20

How is the stomach protected from HCL and protein digestive enzyme?

1)It is lined with a thick mucus layer which protect stomach wall.
2) protein digestive enzymes are released in their inactive form.

21

What is small intestine and how many parts is it divided into and what are the parts function

It is a long narrow tube with most of the digestion and absorption takes place it is broadly divided into two parts
1) duodenam: most of the digestion takes place in here
2) illeum: most of absorption takes place in here.

22

What is bile and what is its functions and its properties?

Bile produced by liver is stored in gallbladder and Bile duct is released in duodenum.
1) does not contain any enzymes so just helps in physical breakdown.
2) alkali in nature
3) breakdown physically fat droplets into fat globules increasing surface area the process is known as emulsification.

23

Is pancreatic juice its function and properties?

Produced by pancreas and by pancreatic duct is released in duodenum.
1) alkali as has NaHCO3
It has enzyme protease Carbohydrase and lipase.
• It Breaks lipids through lipase into fatty acids and glycerol
• It Breaks protien through trypsin into shorter protein chains/polypeptide/ peptone.
•It Breaks starch through Amylase into maltose.

24

What is intestinal juice its properties and functions.

Intestinal juice produced by intestinal glands found in walls of intestine.
1) alkaline in nature
2) has enzymes protease carbohydrase and lipase.
° It Breaks shorter protein chain/peptone through erepsin into amino acids
° It Breaks lipids / fats into fatty acids Plus glycerol
° It Breaks Maltose through maltase into glucose + glucose
° It Breaks lactose through lactase into galactose + glucose
° It Breaks sucrose through sucrase into fructos + glucose

25

Absorption in small intestine?

1) Long narrow coiled tube which provides maximum time for digestion and absorption.
2) For digestion it as bile and digestive enzymes, which convert complex food molecules into simplest form
3) For absorption it has finger like projection or protrusions, which increase surface area
4) Wall of each villus/finger like protrusion is only one cell wall thick so nutrients need not pass through many layers before entering Lacteal and Blood Capillary.

26

What does lacteal absorb?

It absorbs fatty acids, glycerol and fat soluble vitamin (Vitamin D).

27

What do blood capillaries in Villus absorb?

They absorb glucose, amino acids some water and salts and water soluble vitamin (Vitamin C)

28

How Many parts is large intestine divided into?

3 parts.
1) Caecum
2) Colon
3) Rectum

29

What is the function of Caecum Colon and Rectum

Caecum: comparatively smaller part which receives undigested matter from small intestine
Colon: Comparatively longer/larger where absorption of water and salts take place.
3) Rectum: Smaller where undigested matter in the form of faeces is stored.

30

opening of rectum is controlled by which muscles?

It is controlled by a pair of sphincter muscles.

31

What does faeces contain?

It contains Fibre (cellulose), some water, some cells from the lining which have been withered off due to friction, and bacteria and bile pigment.

32

What are the 4 types of teeth?

1) Incisors
2) Canines
3) Premolars
4) molars

33

What is the function of molars and premolars?

Premolars: relatively smaller than molars, two cusps on crown used for grinding and crushing.
Molars: Relatively larger then premolars, 4 cusps on crown used for same grinding and crushing, two-three rooted

34

What is the function of Incisors and Canines?

Incisors: chizzled shaped, front teeth, single rooted help in cutting of food.
Canines: Pointed, used for grasping and tearing and are single rooted.

35

What is Pulp Cavity?

softest, containing blood vessels, and nerve.

36

What is Cementum?

Helps in gripping tooth in gum, Fibre also has the same function allows flexibility while chewing anything hard. reducing stress on teeth.

37

What is Plaque?

Thin slippery layer on surface of teeth, produced by bacteria and saliva in mouth is called plaque. Plaque is softer and can easily be removed by brushing.

38

What is Tarter?

If plaque is not removed, it keeps on depositing and turns unto a hard yellow substance called tartar, which cant be removed by brushing.

39

Explain gum disease?

1) If tartar is not removed, bacteria in mouth start residing tartar causing inflammation in gums
2) Gums start to bleed a tooth becomes loose and tartar has to be removed.

40

Explain Tooth Decay?

1) Bacteria with sugary substance in mouth produce acid,. This acid starts to corrode or break enamel, then decline and lastly reaches pulp cavity. Such situation is called "Tooth Decay". Tooth becomes sensitive as blood capillaries are open and needs to be treated

41

How to prevent gum and tooth decay?

1) Rinse mouth after every meal
2) eat less sugary food, if eaten try to eat with meal
3) Use toothpick or dental floss to remove bigger chinks occasionally.
After breakfast and before going to bed use toothpaste containing fluoride which strengthens enamel preventing tooth decay. Visit a dentist every 2-6 months