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Flashcards in Animal Tissues Deck (38):
1

Four main categories of animal tissues

  1. Epithelial 
  2. Connective
  3. Muscular
  4. Nervous

2

Epithelial Tissue

  • covers outside of body and lines organs
  • sheets of tightly packed cells
    • ex. Epidermis

3

Types of Epithelial Tissue

acc. to layers

  1. simple
  2. stratified
  3. pseudostratified

4

Types of Epithelial Tissue

acc. to shape

  1. Cuboidal
  2. Squamous
  3. Columnar

5

Simple squamous epithelium

  • flattened cells
  • found in 
  1. Blood capillaries
  2. lungs
  3. other surfaces
  • for passive diffusion of gasses and tissue fluids

6

Stratified squamous epithelium

  • 2+ layers of cells
  • found in
    • oral cavity
    • esophagus
    • anal canal
    • vagina 
    • skin
  • for withstanding mild physical abrasions
  • base layers undergo continuous mitotic division

7

Simple cuboidal epithelium

  • short, box-like cells
  • found lining small ducts and tubules
  • for active secretory and absorptive functions

8

Simple columnar epithelium

  • elongated (taller) cuboidal epithelium cells
  • found in highly absorptive surfaces like
    • intestinal tract
    • female reproductive tract
  • some organ cells may be ciliated

9

Stratified columnar epithelium

  • at least 2 layers of cells
  • found in some areas of
    • anorectal region
    • salivatory duct

10

Functions of Connective Tissue

  1. mechanical support
  2. bind structures for shape and organization
  3. storage of energy
  4. protection against infection
  5. repair
  6. exchange of metabolites between blood and tissues

11

Major types of connective tissues in vertebrates

  1. Loose connective tissue
  2. Fibrous connective tissue
  3. Adipose tissue
  4. Bone
  5. Blood 
  6. Cartilage

12

Fibrous connective tissue

  • dense -bec. of collagenous fibers
  • fibers organized into parallel bundles
  • forms 
    • tendons -muscle to bone
    • ligaments -bone to bone

13

Loose connective tissue

  • "packing materials"
  • hold organs in place
  • has all 3 fiber types
    • Collagenous fiber
    • Reticular fiber
    • Elastic fiber
  • has two cell types in the fibrous mesh
    • fibroblasts
    • macrophages

14

Adipose tissue

  • store fat in adipose cells
  • pads and insulates the body

15

Cartilage

  • flexible connections
  • collagenous fibers embedded in ribbery matrix made up of chondroitin sulfate

 

  • chondrocytes secrete collagen and chondroitin sulfate

16

Three types of cartilage

  1. Hyaline cartilage
  2. Elastic cartilage
  3. Fibrocartilage

17

Hyaline cartilage

  • precursor of bone
  • support and reinforcement 

 

18

Elastic cartilage

  • maintains structural shape 
  • has great flexibility

19

Fibrocartilage

  • contains many large collagenous fibers
  • absorbes compression shock

20

Bone

  • mineralized connective tissue
  • osteoblasts deposit a matrix of collagen
  • calcium phosphate

21

Blood

  • made up of 
    • plasma 
    • erythrocytes (RBCs)
    • leukocytes (WBCs)
    • platelets

22

Plasma

  • 55% of blood
  • made up of 
    • H2-90%
    • Dissolved solids
      • proteins
      • nourishment for cells
      • cell products
      • waste 
    • gasses (O2, CO2, N)

23

Formed Elements

  • 45% of Blood
  • made up of 
    • Erythrocytes (RBCs)
    • Leukocytes (WBCs)
    • Platelets

24

Erythrocytes

  • Red Blood Cells
  • biconcave shape
  • transport gasses (O2 and CO2) via hemoglobin

25

Leukocytes

  • White blood cells
  • Immune response

26

Platelets

  • for blood coagulation (blood clotting)
  • thrombocytes
  • no nucleus

27

Types of Leukocytes

  1. Neutrophil
  2. Eosinophil
  3. Basophil
  4. Lymphocyte
  5. Monocyte

28

Neutrophils

  • phagocytic
  • becomes yellow pus after dying

29

Eosinophils

against infections and parasites

30

Basophils

inflammatory response

31

Lymphocytes

becomes Memory Cells

32

Monocytes

becomes macrophages and is phagocytic

33

Muscle tissue

  • made up of long cells called muscle fibers
  • most abundant in animals

34

Types of Muscle Cells

  1. Smooth Muscle
  2. Skeletal Muscle
  3. Cardiac Muscle

35

Smooth Muscle

 

  • spindle-shaped with single nucleus
  • no striations
  • double innervations
  • involuntary 
  • found in blood vessel walls and digestive tract 

36

Skeletal Muscle

  • cylindrical and with multiple nuclei
  • striated
  • single innervation by motor nerve
  • voluntary 
  • in muscles attatched to skeleton

37

Cardiac Muscle

  • cylindrical but branching, with single nucleus
  • striated
  • double innervations
  • involuntary
  • in walls of heart (pumping blood)

38

Nervous Tissue