Ankle Joint Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Musculoskeletal System > Ankle Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ankle Joint Deck (41):
1

What kind of joint is the ankle?

Synovial joint

2

What is the ankle formed by?

The bones of the leg and foot- the tibia, fibula and talus

3

Functionally, what type of joint is the ankle?

Hinge

4

What does the ankle joint permit?

Dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the foot

5

How are the tibia and fibula bound together?

By strong tibiofibular ligaments

6

What is produced by the tibiofibular ligamental binding of the tibia and fibula?

It produces a bracket shaped socket

7

What is the bracket shaped socket of the tibia and fibula known as?

A mortise

8

What is the mortise covered in?

Hyaline cartilage

9

What fits into the mortise?

The body of the talus

10

What shape is the articulating part of the talus?

Wedge shaped. Wider anteriorly, and thinner posteriorly

11

What happens during dorsiflexion?

The anterior part of the bone is held in the mortise, and the joint is more stable

12

Where do the ligaments of the ankle originate from?

Each malleolus

13

What are the ligaments of the ankle?

Medial ligament 
Lateral ligament

14

What does the medial ligament attach to?

The medial malleolus

15

What does the medial ligament consist of?

Four separate ligaments

16

What happens to the four medial ligaments?

They fan out from the malleolus, attaching to the talus, calcaneus and navicular bones

17

What is the primary action of the medial ligament?

To resist the over-eversion of the foot

18

What does the lateral ligament originate from?

The lateral malleolus

19

What does the lateral ligament do?

Resists over-inversion of the foot

20

What is the lateral ligament comprised of?

Three distinct and separate ligaments- anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular

21

Where does the anterior talofibular ligament span between?

The lateral malleolus and lateral aspect of the talus

22

What does the posterior talofibular ligament span between?

The lateral malleolus and posterior aspect of the talus

23

What does the calcaneofibular ligament span between?

The lateral malleolus

24

How can the ankle joint and associated ligaments be visualised?

As a ring in the coronal plane

25

What is the upper part of the ring of the ankle joint formed by?

The articular surfaces of the tibia and fibula

26

What is the lower part of the ring of the ankle joint formed by?

The subtalar joint (between the talus and calcaneus)

27

What are the sides of the ring of the ankle joint formed by?

The medial and lateral ligament

28

What is the result of the ankle joint being a ring?

A ring, when broken, usually breaks in two place. When dealing with an injury to an ankle joint, a clinician must bear this in mind

29

What type of joint is the ankle joint?

Hinge type

30

What is the result of the ankle joint being a hinge type joint?

Movement is only possible in one plane

31

What movements occur at the anlke?

Plantarflexion 
Dorsiflexion

32

What is plantarflexion at the ankle produced by?

The muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg- gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris and tibialis posterior

33

What is dorsiflexion produced by?

The muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg- tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorum longus

34

What does an ankle sprain refer to?

Partial or complete tears of the ligaments of the ankle joint

35

What do ankle sprains usually occur in?

A plantarflexed weightbearing foot, which is excessively inverted

36

Which ligament is more likely to be damaged in an ankle sprain?

The lateral ligament

37

Why is the lateral ligament more likely to be damaged in an ankle sprain?

It’s weaker 
The lateral ligament resists inversion

38

Which lateral ligament is at the most risk of irreversible damage in an ankle sprain?

The anterior talofibular

39

What is a Pott’s fracture?

A term used to describe a bimalleolar (medial and lateral malleoli) or trimalleolar (medial and lateral malleoli, and distal tibia) fracture

40

What is a Pott’s fracture produced by?

Forced eversion of the foot

41

What stages does a Pott’s fracture occur in?

Forced eversion pulls on the medial ligaments, producing an avulsion fracture of the medial malleolus 
The talus moves laterally, breaking off the lateral malleolus 
The tibia is then forced anteriorly, shearing off the distal and posterior part against the talus