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Flashcards in Anterior abdominal wall Deck (49):
1

What separates the abdominal cavity from the pelvic cavity?

The pelvic inlet

2

T/F the abdominal and pelvic cavities are continuous with each other?

Truth

3

What are the layers of the lateral portion of the abdominal wall from outside to inside?

Skin, superficial fascia- fatty layer, superficial fascia- membranous layer, muscular layer, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fascia, parietal peritoneum

4

What muscles are contained in the muscle layer of the anterolateral wall

external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominus muscles

5

What are the layers of the muscles of the anterolateral wall from outside to inside?

External oblique (which continues as an aponeurosis)
Underneath that is the internal oblique muscle
rectus abdominis muscles are deep and on either side of the midline

6

What is the medial border of the rectus abdominis muscles?

The linea alba

7

What is the rectus sheath made of?

An aponeurotic sheath

8

What does the rectus sheath do?

It envelops the rectus abdominus and pyramidalis (pyramidalis might not be seen)

9

The rectus sheath's structure/shape is dependent on what other structure?

The arcuate line

10

How is the rectus sheath formed superior to the arcuate line?

Anterior layer is formed by the aponeurosis of external oblique and 1/2 of the internal oblique.

The posterior layer is formed by the aponeurosis of 1/2 the external oblique and transversus abdominis and transversalis fascia

11

How is the rectus sheath formed inferior to the arcuate line?

Anterior layer is formed by aponeuroses of EO, IO, TA

Posterior layer formed by transversalis fascia

12

Where is the median umbilical fold and what does it cover?

It is from the urinary bladder to the umbilicus
It covers the median umbilical ligament

13

The medial umbilical folds cover what and what?

Cover the medial umbilical ligaments and occluded portions of the umbilical artery

14

What do the lateral umbilical folds cover?

The inferior epigastric vessels

15

You should probably go draw the path of the circumflex iliac and epigastric arteries and their veins.

yep

16

Where do the circumflex iliac and epigastric vessels travel?

In the superficial fat and fascia

17

The deep circumflex iliac artery is a branch of what? What does it supply?

It is a branch of the external iliac artery
It supplies the inferior lateral abdominal muscles

18

The inferior epigastric artery is a branch of what? What does it supply? What does it anastomose with?

It is a branch of the external iliac artery
It supplies the lower rectus abdominus muscle
It anastomoses with the superior epigastric

19

The superior epigastric artery is a branch of what? It supplies what? What does it anastomose with?

A branch of the internal thoracic (mammary) artery
Supplies the upper rectus abdominus
Anastomoses with inferior epigastric

20

The musculophrenic vessels are branches of what?
What do they supply?

Branches of internal thoracic (mammary)
Supplies upper abdominal muscles and diaphragm

21

T/F, spinal nerves supply the abdominal wall?

Truth

22

What level of spinal nerves are involved in the abdominal wall?

Ventral rami of T7-L1

23

Which spinal nerves supply the region above the umbilicus?

T7-T9

24

Spinal nerve T10 supplies what?

the umbilical region

25

Which spinal nerves supply the region below the umbilicus?

T11-L1

26

Injury to what spinal nerves predisposes you to developing direct inguinal hernias?

T11-L1

27

As the internal thoracic artery descends, it becomes what?

The superior epigastric artery medially and the musculophrenic artery laterally

28

What is the dividing line that distinguishes the femoral artery from the iliac artery?

The inguinal ligament

29

Where is the inguinal region?

Inferior and lateral to the abdominal region
Superior to the thigh
Medial to ilium
Lateral to pubic bone

30

The inguinal ligament is the folded inferior border of the aponeurosis of which muscle?

The external oblique

31

The inguinal ligament extends from where to where?

From the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the pubic tubercle

32

T/F the inguinal canal runs parallel and inferior to the inguinal ligament?

False, parallel and superior to the inguinal ligament

33

What important structure present only in males is found in the inguinal canal?

The spermatic cord and its contents (vas deferens, testicular nerves and vessels, cremasteric muscle and fascia)
Ilioinguinal nerve (L1)

34

The female inguinal canal contains what?

The round ligament of uterus (in males it would be the spermatic cord)
Ilioinguinal nerve (L1)

35

The inguinal canal extends between two openings. What are they?

Superficial and deep inguinal canal rings

36

Where is the superficial inguinal canal ring found?

it's an obvious triangular opening in the external oblique aponeurosis lateral to the pubic tubercle

37

Where is the deep inguinal canal ring found?

It is a subtle piercing in the transversalis fascia just lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels

38

Where are the deep and superficial inguinal canal rings in relation to each other?

The superficial inguinal canal ring is more superficial, more inferior, and more medial than the deep inguinal canal ring

39

For the inguinal canal, what is the anterior wall?

The external oblique aponeurosis

40

For the inguinal canal, what is the posterior wall?

the transversalis fascia and conjoint tendon (which is the fusion of the internal oblique and transversus abdominus aponeurosis medially)

41

For the inguinal canal, what is the roof?

Internal oblique and transversus abdominus muscles

42

For the inguinal canal, what is the floor?

The inguinal ligament

43

Describe an abdominal hernia.

An outpouching of abdominal viscera within a sac

44

A hernial sac is composed of 3 layers- what are they?

Just remember, you've got a PET hernia-
Peritoneum
Extraperitoneal fat
Transversalis fascia

45

Where do most hernias occur?

In the inguinal region ~ 90%

46

What is an indirect inguinal hernia?

It is one that extends through the entire inguinal canal that often enters the scrotum or labia majora (more common in men)

47

What is Hesselbach's triangle (inguinal triangle)?

The triangle is made between the inferior epigastric artery, the rectus abdominus muscle and the inguinal ligament

48

Where does a direct inguinal hernia emerge?

It emerges through the conjoint tendon by or at the superficial ring (usually doesn't enter the scrotum or labia major and is more common in men)

49

Which type of hernia is most common in women?

The femoral hernia