Anterior Horn Cell and Peripheral Nerve Disorders Flashcards Preview

MS2 - Nervous System > Anterior Horn Cell and Peripheral Nerve Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anterior Horn Cell and Peripheral Nerve Disorders Deck (21):
1

Emotional dysregulation (such as inappropriate laughing or crying) can be a symptom of _______-motor neuron disorders.

upper

2

What are type I and type II muscle fibers?

Type I: aerobic, mitochondria-rich, slow twitch
Type II: anaerobic, mitochondria-poor, fast twitch

3

Twitching (fasciculation) is associated with ____________ disorders.

anterior horn (such as ALS)

4

What motor neurons does ALS affect?

Both upper and lower

5

Explain the etiology of the term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Lateral sclerosis = the lateral parts of the spinal cord develop sclerosis
Amyotrophic = the muscles fail to grow because of lack of input

6

What is the mean age-of-onset of ALS?

54 years

7

What percent of ALS is inherited?

5%

8

There is only one drug that has been shown to improve the prognosis of those with ALS. What is it?

Riluzole – this just slows the progression

9

What are some treatments for spasticity?

Phenytoin, benzodiazepams, quinine, dantrolene, and gabapentin – all relaxants or anticonvulsants

10

Most neuropathies affect the _________ muscles first.

distal

11

Most myopathies affect the _________ muscles first.

proximal

12

Defects in the PMP-22 gene can lead to two disorders, depending on the mutation: __________.

deletion leads to hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsy (HNPP) and duplication leads to Charcot-Marie-Tooth

13

All motor neuron, neuromuscular junction, and muscle diseases have no loss of ___________; if there is loss of that, it suggests a nerve-root disorder or peripheral nerve disease.

sensation

14

How can you differentiate disuse-related atrophy from neuromuscular atrophy?

Neuromuscular atrophy leads to a greater degree of weakness.

15

Myopathy leads to loss of a _________, while neuromuscular disorders lead to loss of ___________.

muscle fiber within a motor unit; loss of a whole motor unit

16

There is no loss of ___________ in ALS.

sensation

17

The most common type of diabetic neuropathy is ____________.

distal sensory

18

Autonomic dysfunction can occur in which kind of neuropathy?

Diabetic

19

What is a sign, found on the hands, that is symptomatic of ALS?

Thenar and hypothenar atrophy

20

What are the treatment options for Charcot-Marie-Tooth?

No medications, only PT, OT, and surgery

21

How is diabetic neuropathy treated?

Management of diabetes
Foot hygiene
Pharmacologic treatment of autonomic conditions

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