Anti-Protozoa Agents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anti-Protozoa Agents Deck (58):
1

What are the nitroimidazole abx?

Metronidazole
Tinidazole
Ronidazole

2

What are the Lincosamide ABX?

Clindamycin

3

What is the sulfonamide abx?

Sulfadiazine + trimethoprim

4

What are the benzimidazole drugs?

Albendazole
Fenbendazole
Febantel

5

What are the triazine derivatives?

Ponazuril
Diclazuril

6

What are the hydoxyquinolone drugs?

Decoquinate
Atovaquone

7

Misc. Anti-Protozoa Agents?

Imidocarb dipropionate
Levamisole
Amprolium
Robenidine

8

******What are the drugs used to treat..
Giardiasis

Benzimidazoles (dogs, cats, HORSES, and cattle)
Nitroimidazoles (dogs, cats and horses)

9

******What are the drugs used to treat..
Trichomoniasis

Nitroimidazole

10

Giardiasis:
Disease highlights:

Infection occurs due to contaminated food or water.
Has 2 primary life stages (pathogenic trophozoite and a cyst)
Interferes with absorption in the lumen of the small intestine.
Infects dogs, cats, horses and cattle.
ZOONOTIC

11

******Benzimidazoles:
*Anti-protozoal

Inhibit microtubule formation.
Kills trophozoites (acting from) NOT cycts.
Febantel: dogs and cats
Albendazole: dogs and cattle
Fenbendazole: cats, dogs, horses and cattle.

12

Giardia rarely cause clinical manifestations in this species...

HORSE

13

Nitroimidazoles
*Anti-protozoal
Uses:

Metonidazole, tinidazole and ronidazole.
All uses are EXTRA-label.

14

****** Uses of nitroimidazoles in food animals?******

Use of these drugs in FOOD ANIMALS is ABSOLUTELY PROHIBITED
-Due to mutagenic/carcinogenic potential.

15

Uses in treating nitroimidazoles in giardiasis:

Metronidazole and tindazole used in dogs, cats and horses.
Ronidazole is used in dogs.

16

******Nitroimidazoles
*Anti-protozoal
P.Dynamics:

Prodrugs producing cytotoxic metabolites in the parasite

17

Nitroimidazoles
*Anti-protozoal
Absorption:

Good bioavailability following oral administration (50-100% in dogs and cats)

18

Nitroimidazoles
*Anti-protozoal
Distribution:

Extensive for metronidazole (includes bone and brain)
More restricted to circulation for tinidazole and ronidazole.

19

Nitroimidazoles
*Anti-protozoal
Metabolized:

In the liver

20

Trichomoniasis
Disease highlights:
Caused by

Trichomonas foetis

21

******Trichomisasis
In cats..

Causes large bowel diarrhea.
Prevalence ~31%
Self-limiting, but can take up to 2 years.
Drug of choice Is RONIDAZOLE

22

******What is the DOC for Trichoniasis in cats?

RONIDAZOLE ******
Occurs in 30% of the cat population

23

******Trichomisasis
In cattle:

Transmitted by sexual intercourse.
Bulls are persistently infected and usually cull the bulls.
Self-limiting in cows.

24

******Babesiosis
Drugs to treat:

Tetracyclines
Hydoxyquinolones
Azithromycin

25

******Babesiosis
Disease highlights:

Transmitted by ticks.
-Specific tick species is regional, TICK PREVENTION is mainline action. ******
Pathogenic stages infect RBCs, which are destroyed by immune attack.
Signs include: anemia, splenomegaly, depression, and anorexia.

26

******Horses treatment of Babesiosis:

******Not currently a problem n the US, but can be soon!
TX: Imidocarb dipropionate ****** DNA denaturing agent ******
TX: chlortetracycline

27

******Dogs treatment of Babesiosis:

B. canis, B. gibsoni and B. conradae, typically in the subtropical locations, ~20% of dogs test positive in floida. Most dogs are asymptomatic.
TX: azithromycin and atovaquone (MOA: as an electron transport chain inhibitor)******(hydroxyquinolone) ******

28

******Cows treatment of Babesiosis:

Historically in N. America.
AKA texas fever
Tick vector in the US was eradicated by 1940
REPORTABLE ******

29

Imidocarb dipropionate
(Anti-protozoal)
P.Dynamics:

DNA denaturing agent

30

Imidocarb dipropionate
(Anti-protozoal)
P.Kinetics in horses:

Administered IM and SC
Rapidly distributed, undetectable in plasma after 12 hours.
Unknown metabolism
Parent drug in urine 1.5 days and feces 10 days.

31

Imidocarb dipropionate
(Anti-protozoal)
Adverse effects:

Injection site pain/inflammation
Cholinergic signs
Renal tubular and hepatic necrosis (rare)

32

Atovaquone
Hydoxyquinolone
(Anti-protozoal)
P.Dynamics

Use is extra-label
Electron transport chain inhibitor.

33

Atovaquone
Hydoxyquinolone
(Anti-protozoal)
P.Kinetics

Poorly described
Absorption is doubled when oral administration is accompanied by a fatty meal.
Significant binding to plasma proteins.

34

******What is equine protozoal myeloencephaltis?

Most common protozoal disease of horses in the US.
Caused by Sarcocystis neurona.
Horses are a dead end intermediate host.
Transmission occurs due to consumption of food or water contaminated with feces from a D-host (opossum)******
Most common sign is asymmetric ataxia.

35

******What FDA approved drugs are used to treat equine protozoal myeloencephaltis?

FDA-Approved:
*Ponazuril or diclazuril*(triazine derivatives) +/-
-Sufadiazine-pyrimethamine
60% effective

36

******What investigative drugs are approved drugs are used to treat equine protozoal myeloencephaltis?

Decoquinate (hydroxyquinolones) + levamisole (imidothiazole)
90% effective.

37

Patient relapse equine protozoal myeloencephaltis?

No consensus on protocol for horses that replase
Most report adding new-protozoal drugs to cocktail

38

Thiazine derivatives
(Anti-protozoal)
P.Dynamics:

May interfere with apicoplast function, which may be needed for...
-Fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and starch storage.

39

Thiazine derivatives
(Anti-protozoal)
Ponazuril

Absorption
-30% BA following oral administration in water; enhanced when dissolved in DMS******
-CSF
Eliminated in 80 hours***
Adverse effects: blisters (nose and mouth), rash, diarrhea, mild colic, seizures. ******

40

Thiazine derivatives
(Anti-protozoal)
Diclazuril

5% BA following oral administration ****** CSF:plasma 1:20
****** No reported adverse effects ****** not used as often? not reported?

41

****** What is Hepatozoonosis?

Infects dogs and coyotes in rural areas.
Emerging disease.
Caused by hepatozoon americanum in NA
******-Transmitted by ingestion of infective oocyts in ticks or paratenic hosts.
-Schizonts and gamonts are pathogenic stages.

******Signs include:
-Severe neutrophilic lymphocytosis, marked joint pain associated with myositis and periosteal proliferation.

42

******Treatment of Hepatozoonosis:

TICK PREVENTION
Drugs:
-sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (TMS) + clindamycin + pyrimethamine
-imidocarb dipropionate has also been used
-decoquinate (hydroxyquinoline)

43

******What is decoquinate?

******Used as a stand-alone to prolong remission of Hepatozoonosis in horses.
Electron transport chain inhibitor.
Acts on the schizont/infective stage to prevent further development.

44

Toxoplasmosis
Disease highlights:

Infectious agent is toxoplasma gondii
D-host is felid
-seroprevalence amoung cats is ~32%, normally lives in the GI tract
intermediate host is any mammal (ZOONOTIC)******
Transmission:
-fecal-oral, ingestion of tissue cysts, cays shed oocytes for 3021 days after infection, oocysts survive for months to years in the enviorment and resist most disinfectants.

45

What are the signs of toxoplasmosis?

In healthy adult cats, diarrhea.
In kittens (immunosuppressed cats) fatal extra-intestinal/disseminated toxoplasmosis
depression, anorexia, fever followed by hypothermia, icterus, dyspnea and ascites.
Dogs:
Immunosuppression may lead to disseminated toxoplasmosis, signs and treatment are the same as neosporsis.

46

***What is the treatment of toxoplasmosis?

Sufadiazine-trimethoprim (TMS) or clindamycin.****** in clinic!

47

Guidelines for cat owners with toxoplasmosis..

T. gondii causes abortion, mental retardation, hydrocephalus and ocular pathologies in humans.
-House cats indoors, cover outdoor sandboxes, use plastic liners in litterboxes/clean, feed cat cooked commercial food, filter or boil water, wash hands.
Get tested before pregnancy.

48

******What is used to treat coccidiosis?
Treatment: Prevention:

Sanitation is most important, keep food separate from housing, don't feed raw meat (isospora spp.)

49

What drugs are used to treat coccidiosis?

See FARAD.org for specific use class restrictions
Used metphylactically based on hx of facility.
Doesn't prevent infection but prevents clinical signs!!
Doesn't interfere with the development of immunity.

50

******Amprolium
Use:

All species
Competes with thiamine metabolism in parasites******
Can cause thiamine deficiency, deprsion, anorexia, diarrhea, neurological signs (rare)

51

(Anti-protozoal) used in ruminants and birds:

Decoquinate

52

(Anti-protozoal) used in birds only

Declazuril

53

******(Anti-protozoal)
Used in birds only and competes with guanine metabolism in parasites

Robenidine*********

54

Halofuginone

New drug for birds.

55

What are the OTC ionophore antibiotics?

Ruminants and birds (monensin, lasalocid)
Birds (maduramicin, narasin, semduramicin and salinomycin)

56

Sulfadimetoxine + ormetorpim used in..

DOGS only

57

Sulfadiazine + trimethoprim used in..

DOGS and CATS

58

What species can you use sulfadimethoxine?

ALL species