Anti-seizure, Anesthetics, Muscle Relaxants Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology 2 > Anti-seizure, Anesthetics, Muscle Relaxants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anti-seizure, Anesthetics, Muscle Relaxants Deck (52):
1

Drugs for absence seizures

Clonazepam
Ethosuximide
Valproic acid

2

Drugs for myoclonic seizures

Clonazepam
Lamotrigine
Valproic acid

3

Sudden, brief, shock-like contractions

Myoclonic seizures

4

MOA of phenytoin

Blocks voltage-gated sodium channels
Similar drugs: fosyphenytoin, mephenytoin, ethotoin

5

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Upturned nose
Mild midfacial hypoplasia
Long upper lip with thin vermillion border
Lower distal digital hypoplasia

6

MOA of carbamazepine

Blocks voltage-gated sodium channels and decreases glutamate release
Tricyclics

7

Teratogenic side effects of valproic acid

Neural tube defects
Spina bifida
"Valproate ate the folate"

8

MOA of ethosuximide

Decreases calcium currents (T type) in thalamus
Similar drugs: phensuximide, methsuximide

9

MOA of gabapentin and pregabalin

Blocks calcium channels
Increases GABA release
Inhibits neuronal discharge from seizure foci

10

MOA of lamotrigine

Blocks sodium and calcium channels
Decreases glutamate

11

MOA of levetiracetam and piracetam

Selectively binds synaptic vesicular protein SV2A
Modifies synaptic release of glutamate and GABA
Not metabolized by cytochrome P450

12

Antiseizure drug with the most number of MOA

Topiramate (monosaccharide derivative)
Multiple actions on synaptic function, probably via sodium, calcium, GABA, AMPA-glutamate, carbonic anhydrase

13

Used in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (difficult form of epilepsy, 2-6 y/o)

Topiramate

14

First line drug for mania

Valproic acid

15

DOC for trigeminal neuralgia

Carbamazepine

16

Can be used for migraine

Gabapentin
Phenytoin
Topiramate

17

Drugs for tonic-clonic seizures

Carbamazepine
Lamotrigine
Phenytoin
Valproic acid

18

Stages of anesthesia

Analgesia
Disinhibition
Surgical anesthesia
Medullary depression

19

Inhalational anesthetics

Nitrous oxide
Desflurane
Sevoflurane
Isoflurane
Enflurane
Halothane
Methoxyflurane

20

SE include megaloblastic anemia and euphoria, lowest potency, highest MAC

Nitrous oxide

21

Pulmonary irritant, pungent, poor induction agent

Desflurane

22

SE include renal insufficiency

Sevoflurane
Metabolite is nephrotoxic

23

Associated with coronary steal syndrome

Isoflurane

24

SE include spike-and-wave activity, muscle twitching, breath holding

Enflurane

25

Can cause post operative hepatitis and malignant hyperthermia when mixed with succinylcholine

Halothane

26

Highest potency and lowest MAC, obsolete

Methoxyflurane

27

Antidote to benzodiazepines

Flumazenil

28

Dissociative anesthetic, MOA?

Ketamine
Blocks excitation of glutamate at NMDA receptors

29

IV anesthetic with minimal effects on CV and respiratory functions, no analgesic properties

Etomidate

30

Opioid analgesics

Fentanyl
Morphine
Alfentanil
Remofentanil

31

Antidote to fentanyl

Naloxone- antidote for opioids

32

Milk of amnesia, MOA?

Propofol
Potentiates GABA-alpha receptors, blocks sodium channels

33

Local anesthetics

Esters, 1 i: tetracaine, procaine, benzocaine
Amides, 2 i's: bupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine

34

MOA of local anesthetics

Block voltage-dependent sodium channels, reducing influx of sodium, thereby preventing depolarization

35

All local anesthetics are vasodilators except...

Cocaine

36

Shortest half life among local anesthetics

Procaine
Novocaine

37

Prevents reuptake of epinephrine and norepinephrine

Cocaine

38

Topical ophthalmic anesthesia, with most allergenic potential

Tetracaine

39

Local anesthetic with group 1B antiarrhythmic activity

Lidocaine

40

Toxic dose of lidocaine

5 mg/kg
1%=10 mg/ml

41

Used in dental anesthesia, can cause methemoglobinemia

Prilocaine

42

Used in epidural anesthesia

Bupivacaine
Ropivacaine

43

Treatment for cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine

INTRALIPID (fat emulsion used in TPN)

44

MOA of succinylcholine

Agonist at Ach-N receptors causing initial twitch then persistent depolarization.

45

Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers

Tubocurarine
Mivacurium
Atracurium
Vecuronium
Rocuronium
Pancuronium

46

Long acting nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker

Tubocurarine

47

Used in strychnine poisoning, lethal injection

Pancuronium

48

Undergoes Hofman elimination (rapid spontaneous breakdown)

Atracurium

49

Drugs used in lethal injection

Thiopental
Pancuronium
Potassium chloride

50

Metabolized by pseudocholinesterase

Mivacurium
Succinylcholine

51

Undergoes elimination in bile

Vecuronium

52

Can cause malignant hyperthermia

Succinylcholine interaction with halothane and possibly tubocurarine
Treatment includes rapid cooling and administration of dantrolene