Antibacterial Agents III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibacterial Agents III Deck (36):
1

The three macrolides are ___________.

azithromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin

2

What are the important considerations for hepatically metabolized drugs?

(1) drug-drug interactions; (2) genetic differences in metabolism; and (3) potential for hepatotoxicity

3

All of the protein-synthesis inhibitors are bacteriostatic except __________.

the aminoglycosides, which irreversibly bind to the 30S subunit

4

The tetracyclines bind to the _________, as do aminoglycosides.

30S subunit

5

Chloramphenicol and the macrolides bind to the ____________.

50S subunit

6

Resistance to tetracycline is commonly accomplished by _________.

acquisition of DNA that expresses proteins for efflux pumps

7

Tetracycline absorption is impaired by _________.

milk products, Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+

8

Chemically, macrolides are __________.

weak bases that are more active at alkaline pHs

9

Drug inactivation does not occur with __________.

macrolides

10

Resistance to macrolides can occur by _________.

drug efflux or methylation of the 50S subunit

11

Which macrolide should be taken on an empty stomach?

Azithromycin

12

Azithromycin and erythromycin cannot reach the _______, but they can pass to the ________.

CSF; placenta

13

Which macrolide can be dosed once daily?

Azithromycin

14

Macrolides can kill ____________.

Gram-positive cocci (except enterococci), many Gram-negative bacteria (H. influenzae, Neisseria, Leionella, Bortadella), and atypical bacteria

15

What are the three ways bacteria become resistant to tetracyclines?

Decreased entry, increased efflux, and modified protein target (30S)

16

Tetracyclines are best absorbed on _________ stomach.

an empty

17

Tetracyclines work great for everything except ___________.

Enterococci, Clostridia, Pseudomonas, and H. influenzae

18

Vibrio cholerae is a ___________.

Gram-negative bacillus

19

Other than macrolides, _________ also binds to the 50S subunit.

clindamycin

20

Clindamycin mostly works just on __________, but also works on _________.

Gram-positive cocci (except enterococci); Bacteroides fragilis

21

List the aminoglycosides.

Streptomycin, Tobramycin, Gentamicin, Amikacin, Kanamycin, and Neomycin

22

Aminoglycosides are ________ soluble and more active at ___________.

water (hence, they do not penetrate tissues well); alkaline pH

23

The three ways bacteria become resistant to aminoglycosides are __________.

decreased entry, modified drug target, and enzymatic drug modification

24

Because they are polar and cationic, _____ are not well absorbed orally.

aminoglycosides

25

Aminoglycosides work well against __________.

Gram-positive cocci (except enterococci) and Gram-negative rods (except H. influenzae); they are not effective against atypical or anaerobic bacteria

26

Again, aminoglycosides are very toxic to the __________.

kidneys and inner ears

27

Because it is so lipid soluble, _________ is rapidly absorbed and well distributed to all tissues.

chloramphenicol

28

Chloramphenicol is best at treating _________.

Gram-negative bacteria, anaerobes, and atypical bacteria

29

Toxic effects of chloramphenicol include ___________.

grey baby syndrome and bone marrow toxicity

30

_________ also inhibit the 50S subunit, but because they do so at a different site, no cross-resistance has been observed.

Linezolids

31

Clarithromycin has a ________ duration than erythromycin.

longer

32

How would you treat community-acquired pneumonia in a healthy person, a person who had had abx within the past three months, and a person in the ICU?

Healthy = doxycycline or a macrolides; previous abx = fluoroquinolone or macrolide + beta-lactam; and ICU = pip/taz + fluoroquinolone or vancomycin

33

The only drug that treats Lyme disease is __________.

doxycycline

34

Clindamycin can cause ___________.

pseudomembranous coitis

35

Iron supplements decrease the bioavailability of ____________.

tetracyclines

36

The cyclines are __________.

teratogenic

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