Antibacterial autophagy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibacterial autophagy Deck (31):
1

What does cell autonomous innate immunity refer to?

that all nucleated cells can protect themselves from pathogenic invasion

2

What are the options intracellularly for pathogens to live?

vesicles or cytosol

3

What do extracellluar pathogens face in terms of immunity?

antibodies; complement; phagocytes

4

What do vesicular pathogens face interms of immunity?

low pH; hydrolytic enzymes; radicals

5

What do cytosolic pathogens face in terms of immunity?

autophagy; inflammasome; host clel death

6

Give examples of pathogens that live in the cytosol?

shigella; listeria

7

What is autopahggy?

enclosure of cytoplasmic constituents in a double membrane vesicle- autophagosome

8

What proteins are required for autophagy?

ATG proteins

9

Which ATG proteins are particularly important for autophagy?

ATG8/LC3

10

What name is given to bacterial autophagy?

xenophagy

11

What fuses with autophagosome?

late endosomes or lysosomes

12

What are the 3 general stages in xenophagy?

intial danger signal; cargo labelling; label decoding

13

What protein is used for cargo labelling?

ubiquitin

14

What is used for label decoding?

autophagy adaptor/receptor

15

What is hte function of autophagy receptors?

decode "eat me" signals and drags intracellular microbes into autophagosomes

16

What are the 3 domains found on autophagy receptors?

one for interaction ot immune signalling; LIR domain and one which recognises an eat me signal

17

What is the LIR region for?

LC3 interacting region which ensures targeting of the autophagy receptor to LC3 anchored in the phagosome membrane

18

Give examples of autophagy receptors?

NDP52; optineurin; T6BP

19

What happens when NDP52 is missing?

rampant intracellular bacteria

20

Which types of cell is ubiquitin foudn in?

eukaryotic cells

21

By what type of bonding does ubiquitin modify other proteins?

covalently

22

How many enzymes does ubiquitin linkage require ?

3

23

How are ubiquitin chains formed?

by lysine residues- the shape of the chain determiens the repsonse to the ubiquitin

24

How does the cell recognise cytosolic bacteria?

bursting of the vacuole exposes host carbohydrates that aren't normally present

25

Which receptor is responsible for detecting cytosol exposed carbohydrates?

danger receptor- galectin-8

26

What receptor is galectin-8 able to bind directly to?

NDP52

27

What is macro-autophagy?

delivers cytoplasmic cargo to the lysosome through the autophagosome

28

What is micro-autophagy?

cytosolic components are directly taken up by the lysosome through invagination of the lysosomal membrane

29

What is chaperone-mediated autophagy?

targeted proteins are translocated across the lysosomal membrane in a complex with chaperone proteins that are recognised by a receptor LAMP-2A

30

How does salmonella escape its salmonella containing vacuole?

type 3 secretion system

31

What is a good marker for autophagy?

LC3