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What are the three main causes of UTIs?

E.coli, S.saprophyticus, Proteus spp


what can you use against UTI

amoxcyillin, augmentin, cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (use this one) morfloxacin


what are the 3 groups of drugs you can use against p.aeruginosa? name examples

1) Penicillins
2) Aminoglycosides
3) Quinolones
4) Carbapenems
5) Cephalosporins


name an example of 1,2,3,4 and 5 cephalosporins

1- cephalexin, 2- cefaclor, 3- cefotaxime, 4- cefepime, 5- ceftaroline


what are the resistance mechanisms to beta-lactam antibiotics?

1. Inducible Beta-lactamases - Class 1 B-lactamase production when exposed to antibiotic (ampC enzymes)
2. Extended spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL) production. This is found in some mutant gram negative rods and requires 3rd gen ceph's


what are you use against bacteria resistant to 3rd and 4th gen cephalosprins?



why is IV emipiral ceftriazone used in becateiral meningitidis?

might die before the results from the suitability tests come back. Ceftriaxone (3rd gen cephalosporin) is used because it penetrates the blood brain barrier and covers most/all possibilities of bacteria causing the meningitis.


What are two penicillins that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?

Ticarcillin & Piperacillin


What are two cephalosporins that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?

Ceftazidime, Cefepime


What are two carbapenems that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?

Imipenem & Meropenem


What are two aminoglycosides that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?

Gentamicin & Tobramicin


What are two Quinolones that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?

Norfloxacin & Ciprofloxacin


Name a 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Cephalosporin

1st - Cephalexin/Cefalozin
2nd - Cefalcor/Cefyroxine
3rd - Ceftrixone/Ceftazidime
4th - Cefepime


How does the activity of Cephalosporins change as you move down the generations i.e. from 1st to fourth?

There is an increase in gram negative activity, but reduced gram positive. Early generations are very good with gram positive


What could cause meningitis in a young person?

Neisseria meningitis, S.pneumoniae & H.influenzae

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