Flashcards in antibiotics 2 Deck (15):
What are the three main causes of UTIs?
E.coli, S.saprophyticus, Proteus spp
what can you use against UTI
amoxcyillin, augmentin, cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (use this one) morfloxacin
what are the 3 groups of drugs you can use against p.aeruginosa? name examples
name an example of 1,2,3,4 and 5 cephalosporins
1- cephalexin, 2- cefaclor, 3- cefotaxime, 4- cefepime, 5- ceftaroline
what are the resistance mechanisms to beta-lactam antibiotics?
1. Inducible Beta-lactamases - Class 1 B-lactamase production when exposed to antibiotic (ampC enzymes)
2. Extended spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL) production. This is found in some mutant gram negative rods and requires 3rd gen ceph's
what are you use against bacteria resistant to 3rd and 4th gen cephalosprins?
why is IV emipiral ceftriazone used in becateiral meningitidis?
might die before the results from the suitability tests come back. Ceftriaxone (3rd gen cephalosporin) is used because it penetrates the blood brain barrier and covers most/all possibilities of bacteria causing the meningitis.
What are two penicillins that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?
Ticarcillin & Piperacillin
What are two cephalosporins that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?
What are two carbapenems that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?
Imipenem & Meropenem
What are two aminoglycosides that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?
Gentamicin & Tobramicin
What are two Quinolones that P.aeruginosa may be susceptible to?
Norfloxacin & Ciprofloxacin
Name a 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Cephalosporin
1st - Cephalexin/Cefalozin
2nd - Cefalcor/Cefyroxine
3rd - Ceftrixone/Ceftazidime
4th - Cefepime
How does the activity of Cephalosporins change as you move down the generations i.e. from 1st to fourth?
There is an increase in gram negative activity, but reduced gram positive. Early generations are very good with gram positive