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Pharm 1 Final Exam > Antibiotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (97):
1

used for acute pneumonias especially in immunocompromised

rocephin 3rd generation cephalosporin

2

fluoroquinolones pt education

do not take calcium, iron, dairy, or antacids 2 hours before 2 hours after doses
reduces/prevents absorption

FQ increases photosensitivity

drink plenty of fluids to reduce renal damage

3

Aminoglycosides SE

ototoxicity
nephrotoxicity

4

what type of bacteria does fluoroquinolones treat

gram neg and gram +

5

3rd generation cephalosporins fight

gram negative

6

4th generation cephalosporins used for

kidney
abdominal infection
P.aeruginosa

7

Side effects of tetracyclines (not like fluoroquinos)

diarrhea, nasopharyngitis, anaphylaxis, hepatotoxicity, vertigo and ataxia

8

rocephin

3rd generation gram negative

9

which drug is used as empiric therapy

Extended spectrum penicillins
Ticarcillin
Piperacillin

10

What is cilistatin?
Q3: In what class

a substance that prevents the breakdown of imipenem
class carbapenems- betalactams

11

What is a useful treatment option for people who are allergic to betalactams

fluoroquinones

12

used to treat travelers diarrhea

tetracycline

13

phenszopyridine/pyridium

(NOT ANTIINFECTIVE)
Analgesic specific for dysuria
analgesic only- decreases pain of dysuria

14

If a patient is allergic to a betalactams

they are allergic to other betalactams except for MONOBACTAMS

15

What are the types of antibacterials?

Beta-lactams
Flouroquinolones
Macrolides
Tetracyclines
Sulfonamides
Aminoglycosides
Other agents

16

Which medicine causes achilles tendon rupture and tendinopathy

fluoroquinolones

17

2nd generation cephalosporins fight

gram negative and anaerobes

18

penilcillin with clear solution is given via which route?

IV

19

Macrolides fight
Examples are

gram positive
Azithromycin/ Zithromax
Clarithromycin
Erthromycin
*end in mycin but not all drugs that end in mycin are macrolides

20

Phenazopyridine/Macrodantin side effects

turns uring orange red
analgesic only- decreases pain of dysuria

21

Fluoroquinone is no longer recommended for which conditions
Why?

cystitis, sinusitis, bronchitis
serious side effects

22

4th generation cephalosporins treat what type of bacteria

broad spectrum- gram - and +
needs ID approval

23

____ is the drug of choice for anthrax
Which is in what class

cirpo
which is a fluoroquinone

24

RARE side effects of fluoroquinolones

rare: aortic anurysm or dissection
seizures

25

5th generation cephalosporins example
and what does it treat

MRSA & Community acquired pneumonia
ceftaroline

26

Patient education for tetracyclines

Similar to FQ:
do not take dairy, iron, antacids, calcium 2 hrs b4 2 hrs after, reduces absorption

avoid sun exposure

27

zosyn is a mixture of

piperacillin w/ tazobactam

28

Which drug Known to cause seizures in children

carbapenems

29

tetracycline is used for which diseases


*severe acne

+ others (in other cards, trav diarrhrea

30

What can we treat bone infections with?

penicillinase resistant penicillins:
methicillin
nafcillin
oxacillin
dicloxacillin

31

unasyn is a mixture of

ampicillin w/ sulbactam

32

used to treat severe acne

tetracycline

33

___ causes side effects similar fluoroquinones

tetracyclines

34

How are antibiotics grouped?

grouped by similar structure and mechanism of action

Own words: they look the same (chemically) and they fight the same

35

penicillin with milky fluid- Which route is this given?

IM

36

Augmentin is a mixture of

amoxicillin w/ clavulante

37

tetracycline targets what type of bacteria

broad spectrum

38

Penicillinase resistant penicillins

methicillin
nafcillin
oxacillin
dicloxacillin

DONT MOVE ONE NOSTRIL- heavy artiliery

39

1st generation cephalosporins fight...

gram positive bacteria

40

names of antibiotics w/ betalactamase inhibitors

augmentin, zosyn, unasyn

41

used for serious infections meningitis, serious UTI

monobactams

42

Betalactams include

SUPERCLASS
penilicillins
cephalosporins
carabapenems
monobactams

43

Nitrofurantoin side effects

Watch out for use in kidney disease
Check for BUN and creatinine

44

How can i treat penicillinase producing bacteria?

Penicillinase resistant penicillin -DMON acronym
OR
betalactam w/ betalactamase inhibitor

45

Macrolide side effects
(think this may be important)

angioedema (swelling of lips and face)
anaphylaxis
renal damage
cardiotoxicity
dysrthmias --> cardiac arrest

46

A person with an STD would be prescribed

shot of rocethin and (Macrolide) z pack (fights chlamidia)

47

example of monobactams

aztreonam/azactam only one available in US

48

which drug fights Mycobacterium avian complex in AIDS patients

macrolides

49

better at fighting against S. aureus Aminopen or Cephalosporins

cephalosporins 1st generation
cause less of a reaction

50

What drugs are examples of aminopenicillins?

Amoxicillin and ampicillin

51

which cephalosporin class needs ID approval?

4 generation

52

Which are the extended spectrum penicillins?

Ticarcillin
Piperacillin

53

Main 4th generation cephalosporin we give

cefepime

54

Side effects of betalactams

Well tolerated for the most part
GI upset
diarrhea
Headache
Allergic reaction- rash to hives to anaphylaxis

55

proceed with caution: fluoroquinolones

pt's w/
heart conditions
epileptic

56

Uses for Penicillins

syphillis
Respiratory and skin infections

57

dont give to younger than 8 years old
Why

tetracycline
yellow baby teeth

58

Diseases that we treat with the same pathway

MI
pneumonia
CHF
HF
diabetes

59

antibiotics must be started within _ hours of tx in the pneumonia pathway

2 hours

60

___ is used a an alternative when patients are allergic to amoxicillin
Q2: class?
Q3: when will this exception not be made?

cephalexin
cephalosporin- 1st genereation

if theres a serious reax like anaphylaxis- not used- 10% cross sensitivitiy

61

Dont give to children 17 or younger

fluoroquinolones
joints bones cartilage not fully strong/secure

62

Aminoglycosides

(these are the ones ending in mycin)
Gentamycin
Tobramycin
Streptomycin

63

____ is used synergistically with betalactams for severe pneumonias

gentamycin which is a
aminoglycosides

64

___ is so toxic and will only be given as one dose

gentamycin

65

____ is a tobramycin inhalation solution used for P aeruginosa and pts with cystic fibrosis

TOBI

66

___ is used to treat TB
Q2 what class

streptomycin
aminoglycosides

67

if allergic to sulfur do not take

Bactrim/sulfacetimide - sulfonamides

68

BActrim is from the class

sulfonamides

69

PCP pnemonia occurs in

LRTI HIV patients

70

treats PCP pneumonia

bactrim
sulfonamide

71

SE bactrim

hyperkalemia
stevens johnson syndrome - serious skin infection blisters down throat
could cause cardiac arrest to pts on ACE's and ARB's due to hyperkalemia (fatal dyssrthmias)

72

Clindamycin trade name

Cleocin
Clindamycin is in its own class

73

you can develop C diff from

Streptomycin

74

Patient education on Streptomycin

report any diarrhea

75

___ treats C. diff bacteria

Metronidazole

76

SE metronidazole

headache
diziness
nausea
metalic taste in mouth

77

treatment for metronidazole's specific SE

hard candy for metallic taste

78

Patient education on metronidazole

metallic taste
NO ALCOhol throughout treatment and 48 hours after the last one

79

Big gun antibitoics

Class

Vancomycin
Dalbavancin
Daptomycin
Linezolid
Quinupristin
Class- glycopeptide antibiotics

80

red man syndrome

erythematous rash on face neck and upper torso- minutes after administration

81

causes red man syndrome

vancomycin
dalbavancin

82

treats C.diff but can also cause C.diff

DalbavancinBig gun

83

only given as two doses

DalbavancinBig gun

84

___ interfears with coagulants

oritavancin

85

treats septic arthritis

daptomycin - cubicin Big gun

86

SE cubicin
Class?

anemia and GI upset- less than 10%
myopathy (muscle damage)
eosinophillic pnemonia
daptomycin

87

Patient monitoring for cubicin

if muscle pain or eosinophillic pneumonia develops therapy must be stopped

88

How does myopathy present itself

aches and pains in the bones
breakdown of muscle causes myoglobinuria

89

Linezolid trade name
Class

Zyvox
Big gun

90

Zyvox SE

blood dyscrasias
vision problems
seizures

91

treats diabetic food infection

zyvox

92

used of ___ medication can lead to serotonin syndrome when used with antibiotics

zyvox

93

patient montiroing during zyvox

blurred vision
seizures- especially patients w/ epilepsy

94

Quinupristin trade name

synercid

95

synercid SE

hyperbilirubin (jaundice)
myalagia/myopathy

96

monitoring patient on synercid

watch fro signs of jaundice and muscle aches and pains

97

pts on what type of medications will have worsening myopathys

cholesterol statins