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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (40):
0

Name 6 major classes of antibiotics

βlactams
Aminoglycosides
Macrolides
Quinolones
Tetracyclines
Glycopeptides

1

What groups of antibiotics are βlactams further classified into?

Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Carbapenems

2

What is amoxicillin effective against?

Streptococci
Some gram negative coliforms

3

What is the difference between penicillin V and benzylpenicillin?

Same drug
Penicillin V - PO
Benzylpenicillin - IV

4

What is flucloxacillin effective against?

Staphylococci
Streptococci

5

What drugs make up co-amoxiclav?

Amoxicillin
Clavuronic acid

6

What are clavuronic acid and tazobactam?

βlactamase inhibitors

7

What drugs make up tazocin?

Piperacillin and tazobactam

8

What is co-amoxiclav affective against?

Staph aureus
MRSA
H influenzae
Anaerobes

9

Give an example of a cephalosporin

Ceftriaxone

10

What is ceftriaxone effective against?

Broad spectrum
Used to treat meningitis, gonorrhoea, (pneumonia)

11

What class of drug is ceftriaxone?

βlactam (cephalosporin)

12

Give an example of a carbapenem

Meropenem
Imipenem

13

What are carbapenems effective against?

Very broad spectrum
Effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and anaerobes

14

Under what circumstances would you consider prescribing carbapenems?

Serious infections when other abx have failed

15

Name some aminoglycosides

Streptomycin
Gentamicin

16

What are some serious side effects of aminoglycosides?

Ototoxic - vestibular damage, affects balance as well as hearing
Nephrotoxic

17

When prescribing aminoglycosides, what must you check for in the patient's drug history?

Diuretics
Combination of some diuretics and aminoglycosides can increase risk of ototoxicity

18

What are aminoglycosides effective against?

Gram negative aerobes e.g, coliforms

19

Why are the risks of ADRs so high with aminoglycosides?

They have a narrow therapeutic index

20

Give an example of a macrolide

Clarithromycin
Erythromycin

21

What a macrolides effective against?

Strep pneumoniae
H influenzae
Atypical organisms e.g. Legionella, mycoplasma, chlamydia

22

What are the possible contraindications to prescribing antibiotics?

Allergy
DDIs
Hepatic disease
Renal disease
Pregnancy

23

What questions must you ask regarding antibiotic allergy?

What drug?
What happened?
When did it happen? i.e. did it happen immediately after?

24

Give an example of a quinolone

Ciprofloxacin

25

What is ciprofloxacin effective against?

Gram negative aerobes

26

What are some side effects of ciprofloxacin?

GI disturbance
Photosensitive rash
May cause neurotoxicity

27

In what group of people is ciprofloxacin contraindicated and why?

Children under 16 yrs
Associated with arthropathy in animal trials

28

What drugs make up cotrimoxazole?

Trimethoprim
Sukfamethoxazole

29

What is cotrimoxazole used to treat?

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

30

Give an example of a tetracycline

Tetracycline
Doxycycline
Minocycline

31

What re tetracyclines effective against?

Gram positive organisms
Mycoplasma pneumonia

32

In what groups of patients are tetracyclines contraindicated and why?

Children and pregnant women
Can cause brown discolouration of teeth

33

Give an example of a glycopeptide antibiotic

Vancomycin
Teicoplanin

34

What are glycopeptide effective against?

Most gram positive organisms including MRSA

35

What are some serious side effects of vancomycin?

Ototoxic
Nephrotoxic
Allergic red man syndrome

36

What is allergic red man syndrome and which antibiotic can cause it?

Exfoliative dermatitis, Steven Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, vasculitis

Side effect of vancomycin

37

What is ESBL?

Extende spectrum β lactamase
Produced by some bacteria

38

How would you treat an infection of ESBL-producing organisms?

Meropenem
Co-amoxiclav and piperacillin won't work

39

What is a serious side effect of co-amoxiclav?

Hepatitis