Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (40):
Name 6 major classes of antibiotics
What groups of antibiotics are βlactams further classified into?
What is amoxicillin effective against?
Some gram negative coliforms
What is the difference between penicillin V and benzylpenicillin?
Penicillin V - PO
Benzylpenicillin - IV
What is flucloxacillin effective against?
What drugs make up co-amoxiclav?
What are clavuronic acid and tazobactam?
What drugs make up tazocin?
Piperacillin and tazobactam
What is co-amoxiclav affective against?
Give an example of a cephalosporin
What is ceftriaxone effective against?
Used to treat meningitis, gonorrhoea, (pneumonia)
What class of drug is ceftriaxone?
Give an example of a carbapenem
What are carbapenems effective against?
Very broad spectrum
Effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and anaerobes
Under what circumstances would you consider prescribing carbapenems?
Serious infections when other abx have failed
Name some aminoglycosides
What are some serious side effects of aminoglycosides?
Ototoxic - vestibular damage, affects balance as well as hearing
When prescribing aminoglycosides, what must you check for in the patient's drug history?
Combination of some diuretics and aminoglycosides can increase risk of ototoxicity
What are aminoglycosides effective against?
Gram negative aerobes e.g, coliforms
Why are the risks of ADRs so high with aminoglycosides?
They have a narrow therapeutic index
Give an example of a macrolide
What a macrolides effective against?
Atypical organisms e.g. Legionella, mycoplasma, chlamydia
What are the possible contraindications to prescribing antibiotics?
What questions must you ask regarding antibiotic allergy?
When did it happen? i.e. did it happen immediately after?
Give an example of a quinolone
What is ciprofloxacin effective against?
Gram negative aerobes
What are some side effects of ciprofloxacin?
May cause neurotoxicity
In what group of people is ciprofloxacin contraindicated and why?
Children under 16 yrs
Associated with arthropathy in animal trials
What drugs make up cotrimoxazole?
What is cotrimoxazole used to treat?
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
Give an example of a tetracycline
What re tetracyclines effective against?
Gram positive organisms
In what groups of patients are tetracyclines contraindicated and why?
Children and pregnant women
Can cause brown discolouration of teeth
Give an example of a glycopeptide antibiotic
What are glycopeptide effective against?
Most gram positive organisms including MRSA
What are some serious side effects of vancomycin?
Allergic red man syndrome
What is allergic red man syndrome and which antibiotic can cause it?
Exfoliative dermatitis, Steven Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, vasculitis
Side effect of vancomycin
What is ESBL?
Extende spectrum β lactamase
Produced by some bacteria
How would you treat an infection of ESBL-producing organisms?
Co-amoxiclav and piperacillin won't work