Antibiotics (Antiviral Chemotherapy and Prophylaxis) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibiotics (Antiviral Chemotherapy and Prophylaxis) Deck (16):
1

DRUGS FOR HERPES
Acyclovir
- activated by viral _____________ to forms that inhibit viral _______________
- used for infections due to (3) _____
- SE: nephrotoxicity: crystalluria
- no activity against strains of HSV with absent thymidine kinase activity

SimD:
Docosanol - inhibits fusion between HSV envelope and plasma membranes
Trifluridine - fluoridated pyrimidine nucleoside
Valomaciclovir - investigational agent which acts as an inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase for shingles and EBV

DRUGS FOR HERPES
Acyclovir
- activated by viral thymidine kinase to forms that inhibit viral DNA polymerase
- used for infections due to HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV
- SE: nephrotoxicity: crystalluria
- no activity against strains of HSV with absent thymidine kinase activity

SimD:
Docosanol - inhibits fusion between HSV envelope and plasma membranes
Trifluridine - fluoridated pyrimidine nucleoside
Valomaciclovir - investigational agent which acts as an inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase for shingles and EBV

2

DRUGS FOR HERPES
________________
- DOC for CMV
- inhibits viral DNA polymerase, causing chain termination
- for infections due to CMV, HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV
- SE: leukopenia
- no activity against strains of HSV with absent ___________ activity

DRUGS FOR HERPES
Ganciclovir
- DOC for CMV
- inhibits viral DNA polymerase, causing chain termination
- for infections due to CMV, HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV
- SE: leukopenia
- no activity against strains of HSV with absent thymidine kinase activity

3

DRUGS FOR HERPES
____________
- inhibits viral DNA polymerase, causing chain termination
- used for aciclovir resistance, ganciclovir resistance,
- ACTIVE against strains of HSV with absent thymidine kinase activity

DRUGS FOR HERPES
Cifodovir
- inhibits viral DNA polymerase, causing chain termination
- used for aciclovir resistance, ganciclovir
- ACTIVE against strains of HSV with absent thymidine kinase activity

4

DRUGS FOR HERPES
___________
- pyrophosphate analog
- inhibits viral RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase, and HIV reverse transcriptase; binds to pyrophosphate binding site
- used for HSV infections in AIDS patients, acyclovir-resistance, CMV retinitis
- ACTIVE against strains of HSV with absent thymidine kinase activity

DRUGS FOR HERPES
Foscarnet
- pyrophosphate analog
- inhibits viral RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase, and HIV reverse transcriptase; binds to pyrophosphate binding site
- used for HSV infections in AIDS patients, acyclovir-resistance, CMV retinitis
- ACTIVE against strains of HSV with absent thymidine kinase activity

5

DRUGS FOR HIV
______________
- NRTI
- inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase after phosphorylation by cellular enzymes
- for HIV infection, prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission
- SE: lactic acidosis with hepatic steatosis
SimD: abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine, tenofovir...

DRUGS FOR HIV
Zidovudine
- NRTI
- inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase after phosphorylation by cellular enzymes
- for HIV infection, prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission
- SE: lactic acidosis with hepatic steatosis
SimD: abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine, tenofovir...

6

DRUGS FOR HIV
___________
- NNRTI
- inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase; no phosphorylation required
SimD: Efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine

DRUGS FOR HIV
Delaviridine
- NNRTI
- inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase; no phosphorylation required
SimD: Efavirenz, etravirine (both inhibitor and inducer of P450), nevirapine

7

DRUGS FOR HIV
___________
- protease inhibitor
- inhibit viral protein processing
- SE: fat redistribution syndrome
SimD: ritonavir, saquinavir

DRUGS FOR HIV
Indinavir
- protease inhibitor
- inhibit viral protein processing
- SE: fat redistribution syndrome
SimD: ritonavir, saquinavir

MNEMONIC:
All protease inhibitors end with -navir
NAVIR (never) TEASE a protease inhibitor.

8

DRUGS FOR HIV (Entry Inhibitors)
______________
- fusion inhibitor
- binds to gp41 subunit of viral envelope glycoprotein, preventing fusion of viral and cellular membranes
- SE: increased incidence of bacterial pneumonia

DRUGS FOR HIV (Entry Inhibitors)
Enfuvirtide
- fusion inhibitor
- binds to gp41 subunit of viral envelope glycoprotein, preventing fusion of viral and cellular membranes
- SE: increased incidence of bacterial pneumonia

THINK: enFUvirtide - FUsion inhibitor

9

DRUGS FOR HIV (Entry Inhibitors)
_____________
- CCR5 receptor antagonist
- blocks viral attachment via transmembrane chemokine receptor CCR5

Maraviroc

10

RalteGavir
- inteGrase inhibitor
- avoid using __________ concomitantly (lowered blood levels)

RalteGavir
- inteGrase inhibitor
- avoid using rifampicin concomitantly (lowered blood levels)

11

DRUGS FOR INFLUENZA
Amantadine
- inhibit early step replication and prevent uncoating by binding to M2 proton channels
- use for influenza A, also as adjunct in treating Parkinsonism
- SE: cerebelli dysfunction

DRUGS FOR INFLUENZA
Amantadine
- inhibit early step replication and prevent uncoating by binding to M2 proton channels
- use for influenza A, rubella, also as adjunct in treating Parkinsonism

MNEMONIC
A man to dine takes off his coat (amantadine prevents uncoating)
Amantadine for influenza A and rubellA, and causes problems with cereballA

12

DRUGS FOR INFLUENZA
____________ (tamiflu)
- inhibits ___________; decreases release of progeny virus
- DOC for influenza

DRUGS FOR INFLUENZA
Oseltamivir (tamiflu)
- inhibits neuraminidase; decreases release of progeny virus
- DOC for influenza

13

DRUGS FOR HBV and HCV
________________
- interferon
- degrades RNA via activation of host cell RNAse (ribonuclease)
- for HBV infection, HCV infection
- Cx: autoimmune disease, history of cardiac arrhythmias and pregnancy

DRUGS FOR HBV and HCV
Interferon-alpha
- interferon
- degrades RNA via activation of host cell RNAse (ribonuclease)
- for HBV infection, HCV infection
- Cx: autoimmune disease, history of cardiac arrhythmias and pregnancy

14

DRUGS FOR HBV and HCV
Lamivudine
- inhibits HBV DNA polymerase
- for HBV, HIV infection (used as NRTI)
- Coinfection between HBV and HIV may increase risk of ____________ with lamivudine use

DRUGS FOR HBV and HCV
Lamivudine
- inhibits HBV DNA polymerase
- for HBV, HIV infection (used as NRTI)
- Coinfection between HBV and HIV may increase risk of pancreatitis with lamivudine use

15

DRUGS FOR HBV and HCV
Ribavirin
- inhibits ________ formation; prevents capping of viral mRNA; blocks _____-dependent ______ polymerase
-For HCV infection, _____ infection

DRUGS FOR HBV and HCV
Ribavirin
- inhibits GTP formation; prevents capping of viral mRNA; blocks RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
-For HCV infection, RSV infection

16

An immune response modifier effective for external genital and perianal warts

Imiquimod

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