Antibiotics III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibiotics III Deck (22):
1

Penicillin mechanism of action:

Bactericidal; covalently binds and inactivated PCN-binding proteins

2

Penicillin side effects:

Allergy/anaphylaxis
Renal failure at high doses
Grand mal seizures

3

Antibiotic drugs that can penetrate the CNS:

Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Monobactam
Vancomycin
Chloramphenicol
Antifolates

4

How does clavulanic acid work?

Suicide inhibitor of beta lactamases
Use with penicillinase sensitive penicillins

5

Clavulanic acid side effects:

Allergies
Cholestatic jaundice

6

Vancomycin mechanism of action:

Binds to D-ala-D-ala end peptide to prevent cross linking

7

What mutation can cause a bacterium to become immune to Vancomycin?

Mutation of D-ala-D-ala to D-ala-D-lactate

8

Cephalosporin adverse effects?

Anaphylaxis (allergies)
Do not give to patients with penicillin sensitivity
Renal toxicity with large dosages
Vitamin K antagonist so increased bleeding risk
Inhibits ethanol dehydrogenase

9

Characteristics of monobactams:

Wide spectrum
Tissue and CSF penetration
Low allergy

10

Adverse effects of monobactams:

Skin rashes
Elevated serum aminotransferases

11

Carbapenem characteristics:

Wide spectrum
Good tissue and CSF penetration
Renal dehydropeptidases

12

Carbapenem adverse effects:

N/V/D
Skin rashes

13

Glycopeptide adverse effects:

Phlebitis
Histamine release/flush
Chills
Fever
Ototoxicity

14

Sulfa mechanism of action:

Mimic PABA to inhibit folic acid synthesis

15

Sulfa bacterial resistance mechanism:

Overproduction of PABA
Decreased uptake of sulfas
Folic acid synthase with lower sulfa affinity

16

Sulfa adverse effects:

Crystallization in the kidneys
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

17

A.D.M.E. of sulfas:

Oral
CSF
Acetylated or glucuronide conjugates and renally excreted

18

Trimethoprim mechanism of action:

Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor

19

TMP resistance:

Overproduction of DHF reductase

20

TMP adverse effects:

Megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency

21

Fluroquinolones mechanism of action:

DNA gyrase inhibition preventing DNA relaxation for transcription
Topoisomerase IV interfering with separation of replicated DNA into daughter cells

22

Fluroquinolones excretion:

Renal excretion for UTI