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Flashcards in Antibiotics-Local Deck (15)
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1

What are 5 desirable characteristics of local chemotherapeutics?

-Substantivity
-Low toxicity
-High potency
-Good permeability
-Intrinsic efficacy

2

Which topical antimicrobial ruptures cell membranes, has good substantivity, is a cationic bisbiguanide and is considered the gold standard?

Chlorhexidine

*Reduce plaque by 50-55%, gingivitis 45%

3

What are 3 side effects of chlorhexidine?

1-Staining
2-Calculus formation
3-Taste alteration

4

What topical antimicrobial contains alcohol, reduces plaque and gingivitis 34%, disrupts cell wall and bacterial enzymes (lesterine is an example)?

Essential oils

5

Used as a pre surgical scrub, which antimicrobial is water soluble, effective agains bacteria, viruses and fungi?

Povidine Iodine

*Avoid in patients with iodine of shellfish allergy, thyroid dysfunction, or pregnant/lactating women

6

Which antimicrobial reduces plaque and gingivitis 14% and 24% respectively, ruptures cell walls and is a domiphen bromide as in Scope?

Quarternary ammonium compounds

*Cepacol as well

7

Which antimicrobial is a herbal alkaloid extract, reduces plaque and gingivitis 17-50% and is most effective with other agents?

Sanguinarine

8

Used as an endodontic irrigant, which antimicrobial is corrosive to metal and is also known as bleach?

Sodium hypochlorite

9

Which local antimicrobial promotes remineralization of decalcified enamel and inhibits cariogenic microbial process in plaque?

Stannous Fluoride

10

Which antimicrobial has 20% gingivitis and 25% plaque reduction and is a bisphenol with broad spectrum?

Triclosan

11

At what depth do mouth rinses and supra gingival irrigation have a hard time reaching in a periodontal pocket?

5 mm

12

What are some contraindications for local antibiotics alone?

-Preventative care
-Aggressive periodontal disease
-Multiple unresponsive sites
-Sites that require surgical treatment (vertical bone loss, greater than 6 mm pocket)
-Pregnant or lactating women
-Patients with allergies to medication

13

What are 5 controlled drug delivery systems for local antimicrobials?

1-Tetracycline fibers
2-Metronidazole gel
3-Minocycline (gel, ointment, powder)
4-Chlorhexidine chip
5-Doxycycline

14

What controlled local drug delivery contains chlorhexidine gluconate, releases for 7-10 days and is found to suppress pocket flora for up to 11 weeks?

Periochip (chlorhexidine chip)

15

What local controlled drug is applied while withdrawing the tip of a plastic cartridge in the pocket, is a minocycline hydrochloride and does not require removal later?

Arestin