Antibiotics (Protein Synthesis Inhibitors) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibiotics (Protein Synthesis Inhibitors) Deck (15):
1

Most notorious for pseudomembranous colitis (Clostridium difficile overgrowth): ______________
Drug of choice for pseudomembranous colitis: ______________

Clindamycin
Metronidazole

2

Inhibits transpeptidation at 50S subunit
SE: aplastic anemia (idiosyncratic), gray baby syndrome

Chloramphenicol

3

Blocks attachment of t-RNA to acceptor site by binding to 30S ribosomal unit
SE: teratogen (tooth enamel dysplasia/discoloration
Do not drink with milk or antacids

Tetracycline

4

Tetracycline with broadest spectrum

Tigecycline

5

DOC for malaria prophylaxis

Doxycycline

6

For anaerobic infections above the diaphragm: ___________
Below the diaphragm: __________

Clindamycin
Metronidazole

7

Drug class of quinupristin-dalfopristin

Streptogramin

8

Post-antibiotic effect is seen in ________________.
- Killing action continues when their plasma levels have declined below measurable levels.
- greater efficacy when administered as single large dose
- Toxicity depends on a critical plasma concentration and on the time such a level is exceeded -- shorter with single large dose than multiple small doses (basis for once-daily dosing protocols of the drug)

Post-antibiotic effect is seen in aminoglycosides.
- Killing action continues when their plasma levels have declined below measurable levels.
- greater efficacy when administered as single large dose
- Toxicity depends on a critical plasma concentration and on the time such a level is exceeded -- shorter with single large dose than multiple small doses (basis for once-daily aminoglycoside dosing protocols)

9

Has the narrowest therapeutic window among aminoglycosides

Amikacin

10

AMINOGLYCOSIDES
- not absorbed after oral administration
- water-soluble; limited tissue perfusion; do not readily cross the BBB
- transport can be enhanced by _____________________ (synergystic effect)
- only effective against Gram (-) _________ infections (require O2)
- interfere with protein synthesis
---- block formation of initiation complex
---- cause misreading of the code on the mRNA template
---- inhibit translocation

AMINOGLYCOSIDES
- not absorbed after oral administration
- water-soluble; limited tissue perfusion; do not readily cross the BBB
- transport can be enhanced by cell wall synthesis inhibitors (synergystic effect)
- only effective against Gram (-) aerobic infections (require O2)
- interfere with protein synthesis
---- block formation of initiation complex
---- cause misreading of the code on the mRNA template
---- inhibit translocation

11

___________ is often resistant to many enzymes that inactivate other aminoglycosides. It has the least bacterial resistance but has the narrowest therapeutic window of the aminoglycosides.
Resistance to ____________ develops due to changes in the ribosomal binding site.

Amikacin is often resistant to many enzymes that inactivate other aminoglycosides.
Resistance to streptomycin develops due to changes in the ribosomal binding site.

12

Aminoglycosides for zoonotic infections

Streptomycin

13

AMINOGLYCOSIDE TOXICITIES

Two most vestibulotoxic and nephrotoxic aminoglycosides: ________

Two most ototoxic: _______

Neuromuscular blockade: ______ (reversed with calcium and neostigmine)

Skin reactions: usually from _________ and _________

AMINOGLYCOSIDE TOXICITIES

Two most vestibulotoxic and nephrotoxic aminoglycosides: Gentamicin, tobramycin

Two most ototoxic: kanamycin, amikacin

Neuromuscular blockade: neomycin (reversed with calcium and neostigmine)

Skin reactions: usually from neomycin and streptomycin

14

Aminoglycosides used for bowel preparation for elective surgery
Limited to topical and oral use

Neomycin

15

Aminoglycoside fro drug-resistant gonorrhea and gonorrhea in penicillin-allergic patients

Spectinomycin

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