Anticonvulsants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anticonvulsants Deck (54):
1

Uncontrolled physiologic responses due to a generalized pronounced abnormal discharge of electrical activity in nerve cells?

Seizure!

2

Seizures are mainly __________ but can be caused by:

Idiopathic
-Brain lesions
-Alterations in body chem (hypoxia,acedosis)
-Fever

3

The aim of drug treatment for seizures is to:

Prevent abnormal nerve activity.

4

Anticonvulsants prevent abnormal activity by:

Decreasing initial discharge of impulses
Preventing the spread of elec. discharge

5

Anticonvulsants work by:

-Inhibiting movements of electrolytes across cell membrane
Facilitating natural inhibitory elec. mech.
Altering synaptic transmissions

6

5 Types of Anticonvulsants (HBSBM)

Hydantoins
Barbiturates
Succinimides
Benzodiazepines
Miscellaneous

7

These are the most frequently prescribed of the anticonvulsants.

Hydantoins

8

This drug is the representative of hydantoins:

Phenytoin

9

T/F IM should be avoided for phenytoin.

TRUE - Drug precipitates in tissue and is absorbed erratically.

10

Adult Dose?

300-600 divided by 3 doses per day

11

Children?

4-8mg per kg of body weight, divvied in 2-3

12

In patients with impaired liver funxn, phenytoin doses should be...

Smaller

13

T/F Phenytoin causes strong CNS depression.

FALSE

14

Most common side fx of phenytoin are:

CNS Depression, sluggishness, blurred speech, ataxia

15

Phenytoin is often not used in children because it causes..

Hyperplasia of gums (Overgrown)

16

Phenytoin might be popular with bears because it causes..

Hirsutism

17

Phenytoin can also cause (fever, sore throat)

Agranulocytosis

18

Phenytoin also decreases the absorption of folic acid which can lead to..

Anemia

19

To avoid GI problems, take phenytoin..

With food

20

It is believed that these raise the neuronal firing threshold:

Barbituates

21

Two types of barbituates only are used to prevent seizures:

Phenobabrital
Mephobarbital

22

T/F Barbituates are under the Narc. Control Act.

TRUE

23

T/F Phenobarbital is the first choice for kids.

TRUE

24

Phenobarbital is also useful in treating ________ _______ & ___________ in children.

Status Epilepticus
Febrile Seizures

25

Phenobarbital is available in two preps.

PO & IM

26

T/F Tolerance can develop to phenobarbital.

TRUE - increase dose over time

27

Dose range for adults?

100-300 single or divided

28

Children & barbs?

3-5 per kg divvi by 1 or 2

29

As barbituates are good CNS depressants, we assess for:

Sedation & Drowsiness
Resp. Depression

30

While they may be good for kids, they can also cause:

Paradoxical Hyperactivity

31

Abrupt withdrawal from barbs can induce:

Status epilepticus

32

Beware other _______ when taking barbs.

CNS Depressants

33

This other seizure drug inhibits the metabolism of phenobarb.

Valproic Acid

34

Phenobarbital also stimulates liver enzymes causing:

Increase in metabolism of all other drugs!

35

These drugs are chemically unrelated to hydantoins and barbiturates.

Succinimides

36

Most commonly used succinimide?

Ethosuximide

37

The perk of ethosuximide is that it treats these types of seizures which all others don't.

Petit Mal (Absence) Seizures

38

Adult dose?

1500 in 2 doses

39

Child dose?

1000mg or 20mg per kg in 2 doses

40

Ethosuximide can unfortunately cause serious allergic reactions &...

Blood disturbances!
Anemia & Agranulocytosis

41

These benzos are good for seizures.

Diaz&Clonaz

42

Miscellaneous drugs used to treat seizures include:

Carbamazepine

43

Carbamazepine is useful in treating

All seizures (no petit mal) and MANIA!!

44

Carbamazepine can cause serious blood..

Dyscrasias! Abnormailty in strux,funx,population

45

Valproc Acid is useful for..

All seizures & Bipolar!

46

The action of Valproic Acid occurs at

Synaptic Transmission

47

The unique formation of valproic acid with less GI effects is called:

Divalproex

48

Side fx of VA are primarily

GI - N/V/indigestion

49

Glargines best friend?

Lamotrigine

50

Lamotrigine is one of the _____ anticonvulsants.

Newer!

51

Lamotrigine is a sister to (menalgia)

Lyrica/Gabapentin

52

Lamotrigine is useful for:

All seizures & mania

53

Lamotrigine is evil & with this patch man from days can cause death:

Steven-Johnsons Syndrome!! Severe rash

54

In SJS, the skin:

Peels off/melts/death