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Flashcards in Antihelminthics Deck (55):
1

What are Nematodes

Roundworms
Complete digestive system

2

What are Trematodes

Flatworms

3

What are Cestodes

Flat and segmented
No digestive system so attach to host intestine

4

What are the Antihelminthics

Albendazole
Mebendazole
Thiabendazole
Ivermectin
Piperazine
Pyrantel pamoate
Diethylcarbamazine
Doxycycline
Praziquantel
Bithionol
Niclosamide

5

What are the Benzimidazoles

Albendazole
Mebendazole
Thiabendazole

6

Benzimidazoles and pregnancy

Category C
Contraindicated

7

Which Antihelmenthics inhibit MT synth and glucose uptake

Albendazole
Mebendazole

8

Which Antihelminthic inhibits MT aggregation

Thiabendazole

9

Which Antihelminthics are GABA agonists

Ivermectin
Piperazine

10

Which Antihelminthic is a depolarizing parasite Neuromuscular blocker

Pyrantel pamoate

11

What do you give for cestodes

Albendazole

12

What are cestodes that Albendazole can kill

Cysticercosis
Taenia solium
Visceral larva migrans
Echinococcus granulosis

13

What can happen when you treat with Albendazole

Dying parasites ignite an inflammatory response in the CNS

14

How do you enhance Albendazole absorption

Give with high fat meals

15

What are the Albendazole AE

HA, nausea
Hepatotoxicity
Agranulocytosis
Pancytopenia

16

What does Mebendazole act on

Whipworm [Trichuris trichiura]
Pinworm [Enterobius vermicularis]
Hookworms [N. americanus, A. duodenale]
Roundworm [Ascariasis lumbricoides] 

17

How do you improve Mebendazole absorption

High fat meal

18

When should you use Mebendazole with caution

Cirrhosis

19

What are the Mebendazole AE

Abd pain
Diarrhea
HA
Dizziness

20

What is the most toxic Benzimidazole

Thiabendazole

21

What do you use Thiabendazole for

Threadworm (Strongyloides)
CLM
Early trichinosis

22

How do you improve Thiabendazole absorption

High fat meal

23

What are the Thiabendazole AE

Dizziness/Seizures
Erythemia multiforme
Stevens-Johnson

24

Hoe does Ivermectin work

Cl- influx
Hyperpol muscle/nerve

25

What is Ivermectin DOC for

Onchocerca volvulus (river blindness)
CLM
Strongyloides

26

Does Ivermectin cross BBB

No

27

What must you avoid with Ivermectin

Other GABAergics

28

What is the main Ivermectin AE

Mazotti-like reaction

29

What is the Mazzotti-like reaction

Fever
Dizziness
Somnolence
Hypotension

30

What are the Ivermectin contraindications

Pregnancy
Meningitis

31

What is Piperazine used for

Alternative for pinworm, roundworm

32

When is Piperazine contraindicated

Seizure disorders

33

What is Pyrantel pamoate given for

Roundworm
Pinworm
Hookworm

34

Pyrantel pamoate AE

N/V/D

35

DOC lymphatic filariasis, loiasis, tropical EOS

Diethylcarbamazine

36

DOC sheep liver fluke (fasciola hepatica)

Bithionol

37

DOC Schistocomiasis

Praziquantel

38

How does Diethylcarbamazine work

Immobilize microfilariae rendering them susceptible to host defenses

39

What do you coadminister Diethylcarbamazine with

Antihistamines or Steroids

40

What are the Diethylcarbamazine AE

Fever, myalgia, rash, leukocytosis

41

Which antihelminthic is a Tetracycline

Doxycycline

42

What is Doxycycline used for

Wuchereria bancrofti
Onchocerciasis

43

How does Praziquantel work

Increased Ca permeability
Muscle paralysis
Vessel detachment

44

What else does Praziquantel work on

Trematodes: C. sinensis ,P. westermani
Cestodes: D. latum, T. solium, Saginata

45

What is the DOC for cysticercosis (T. solium)

Albendazole

46

Where is Praziquantel excreted

Urine and bile

47

When is Praziquantel contraindicated

Pregnancy
Ocular cysticercosis

48

What are the Praziquantel AE

Drowsiness, Dizziness
Malaise, anorexia
P450 interactions

49

Which Antihelminthic inhibits parasitic ETC

Bithionol

50

What is the alternative Tx for pulmonary paragonimiasis

Bithionol

51

How does Niclosamide work

Inhibit mito ADP phosphorylation

52

What is the 2nd line for cestodes

Niclosamide

53

What is Niclosamide lethal to

Scolex not ova

54

What do you pretreat with for Niclosamide

Laxative to get rid of the ova

55

What should you avoid with Niclosamide

Alcohol for 1 day