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Flashcards in ANTIHYP Deck (53):
1

Inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)

ACE inhibitors

2

Captopril and enalapril (-PRIL ending) are

ACE inhibitors

3

SE of ACE inhibitors

Dry cough, hyperkalemia

4

ACE inhibitors are contraindicated in

pregnancy and with hyperkalemia

5

Losartan and valsartan block

AT1 receptors

6

Side effect associated with ACEI but not ARBs

Dry cough

7

Block L-type calcium channel

Calcium channel blockers

8

CCB with predominate effect on arteriole dilation

Nifedipine

9

SE of CCB

Constipation, edema, and headache

10

Reduce heart rate, contractility, and O2 demand

Beta-blockers

11

Cardioselective Beta 1-blockers

Atenolol, acebutolol, and metoprolol

12

Beta-blockers should be used cautiously in

Asthma (bronchospastic effects), diabetes (block signs of hypoglycemia) and peripheral vascular disease

13

Non-selective Beta-blocker also used for migraine prophylaxis

Propranolol

14

SE of beta blockers

Bradycardia, SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, decrease in HDL, and increase in Triglycerols (TG)

15

Alpha 1selective blockers

Prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin

16

Non-selective Alpha1blockers use to treat pheochromocytoma

Phenoxybenzamine

17

For rebound HTN from rapid clonidine withdrawal

Phentolamine

18

A1a-selective blocker used for BPH

Tamsulosin (Flomax)

19

SE of alpha blockers

Orthostatic hypotension (especially with first dose) and reflex tachycardia

20

Presynaptic Alpha 2 agonist used in HTN

Clonidine, and methyldopa

21

SE of methyldopa

Positive Comb's test, depression

22

Methyldopa is contraindicated in

Geriatrics due to its CNS (depression) effects

23

SE of clonidine

Rebound HTN, sedation, dry mouth

24

Direct vasodilator of arteriolar smooth muscle

Hydralazine

25

SE of hydralazine

Lupus-like syndrome

26

Arterial vasodilator that works by opening K+ channels

Minoxidil

27

SE of minoxidil

Hypertrichosis

28

IV Drug used Hypertensive Crisis

Nitroprusside

29

Nitroprusside vasodilates

Arteries and veins

30

Toxicity caused by nitroprusside and treatment

Cyanide toxicity treated with sodium thiosulfate

31

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

Acetazolamide

32

Diuretic used as prophylactic for mountain sickness and glaucoma

Acetazolamide

33

Side effects of acetazolamide

Paresthesias, alkalization of the urine (which may ppt. Ca2+ salts), hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and encephalopathy in patients with hepatic impairment

34

Mechanism of action of loop diuretics

inhibits Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter

35

Diuretic used in hypertensive patients with renal failure

Loop diuretics (furosemide, ethacrynic acid, butmetanide)

36

Site of action of loop diuretics

Thick ascending limb

37

Side effects of loop (furosemide) diuretics

Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and ototoxicity

38

Aminoglycosides used with loop diuretics potentiate this adverse effect

Ototoxicity

39

An electrolyte that is lost in the urine by acute treatment with loop diuretics but can be retained by thiazides

Calcium

40

Mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics

Inhibit Na+/Cl- cotransport

41

Diuretic used as first line for treatment of hypertension

Thiazides

42

Site of action of thiazide diuretics

Early distal convoluted tubule

43

Class of drugs that may cause cross-sensitivity with thiazide diuretics

Sulfonamides

44

Side effects of thiazide (HCTZ) diuretics

Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia

45

Mechanism of action of amiloride

Inhibit epithelial sodium channels in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting duct

46

Mechanism of action of spironolactone

Inhibit mineralocorticoid receptor and inhibit Na/K-ATPase and ENaC synthesis

47

Diuretic used to treat primary aldosteronism

Spironolactone, eplerenone

48

Side effect of spironolactone

Gynecomastia hyperkalemia, and impotence

49

Diuretic used to reduce intracranial pressure

Mannitol

50

ADH agonist used for central diabetes insipidus

Desmopressin (DDAVP)

51

Agents used for SIADH

Tolvaptan and conivaptan

52

An early generation tetracyclin that may be used for chronic persistant SIADH

demeclocycline

53

Side effect of demeclocycline

Bone marrow and teeth discoloration for children under 8 years of age