Antihypertensive Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antihypertensive Drugs Deck (20):
1

What classes of drugs are used to treat essential HTN>

  • Diuretics
  • ACE inhibitors
  • angiotensin II receptor blocks
  • Ca channel blockers

2

What classes of drugs are used to treat CHF?

  • Diuretics
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Beta-blockers
  • K+-sparing diuretics 

3

What classes of drugs are used to treat DM?

  • ACE inhibitors
  • Ca channel blockers
  • diuretics
  • Beta-blockers
  • alpha-blockers

4

What is the mechanism of hydralazine?

  • Increase cGMP causing smooth muscle relaxation
  • Vasodilates srterioles > veins 
  • Reduce afterload

5

What is the clinical use of hydralazine?

  • Severe HTN
  • CHF
  • First line therapy for HTN in pregnancy, with methydopa
  • Frequently administered with beta-blocker to prevent reflex tachycardia

6

What is the toxicity of hydralazine?

  • Compensatory tachycardia 
  • Fluid retention
  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Angina
  • Lupus-like syndrome

7

What are the common Ca-channel blockers used to treat HTN?

  • Nifedipine
  • Verapamil
  • Diltiazem
  • Amlodipine 

8

What is the mechanism  of Ca channel blockers?

  • Block voltage-dependent L-type Ca channels of cariac and smooth muscle
    • Reduce muscle contractility

9

What is the order of hte Ca-channel drugs preferentially targetting vascular smooth muscle?

Nifedipine > diltiazem > verapamil

10

What is the order of hte Ca-channel drugs preferentially targetting the heart?

Verapamil > diltiazem > nifedipine 

11

What is the clinical use of Ca channel blockers?

  • HTN
  • angina
  • arrhythmias (not nifedipine)
  • Prinzmetal's angina
  • Raynaud's disease

12

What is the toxicity of Ca channel blockers?

  • cardiac depression
  • AV block
  • peripheral edema
  • flushing
  • dizziness
  • constipation

13

What drugs are used to treat malignant HTN?

  • Nitroprusside
  • Fenoldopam
  • Diazoxide

14

What is the mechanism of nitroprusside?

  • Short acting
  • Increase cGMP via direct release of NO 

15

What toxicity can arise from nitroprusside?

Cyanide toxicity (also released CN)

16

What is the mechanism of fenoldopam?

  • Dopamine D1 receptor agonist 
  • relaxes renal vascular smooth muscle

17

What is the mechanism of diazoxide?

  • K+ channel opener
  • Hyperpolarizes and relaxes vascular smooth muscle 
  • Can cause hyperglycemia (reduces insulin)

18

What is the mechanism of nitroglycerin and isosorbide dinitrate?

  • Vasodilate by releasing nitric oxide in smooth muscle
  • Causes increased in cGMP and smoth muscle relaxation
  • Dilate veins >> arteries 
  • Decrease preload

19

What is the clinical use of nitroglyceri nand isosorbide dinitrate?

  • angina
  • pulmonary edema
  • Also used as aphrodisiac and erection enhancer

20

What is the toxicity of nitroglycerin and isosorbide dinitrate?

  • Reflex tachycardia
  • hypotension
  • flushing
  • headache
  • "Monday disease"
    • industrial exposure causing development of tolerance for the vasodilating action during the work week and loss of tolerance over the weekend