Antimicrobials II Flashcards Preview

Infectious Disease: Unit 2 > Antimicrobials II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antimicrobials II Deck (20):
1

Isoniazid: MOA, resistance

  • Inhibits InhA in mycolic acid biosynthesis
  • Prodrug- mutations in several genes bactercidal

2

Rifampin: MOA, resistance

  • Inhibits transcription by binding to the RNA polymerase
  • Mutations in RNAP bactercidal

3

Ethambutol: MOA, resistance

  • Inhibits arabinosyl transferases in cell wall biosynthesis
  • Mutations in EMB genes Static (cidal in MAC?)

4

Pyrazinamide: MOA, resistance

  • Depletes energy reserves of cell-membrane effects
  • Prodrug- PCNA gene Better in acidic env. bactercidal

5

Streptomycin: MOA, resistance

  • Protein synthesis inhibition 30S ribosomal subunit bactericidal

6

Isoniazid: pharmacokinetics

  • Orally available Well distributed Metabolized- I in CRIMES
  • Acetylation rates differ

7

Rifampin: pharm

  • Orally available Well distributed – colors fluids orange Metabolized- R in CRIMES
  • Potent inducer of CYP450s

8

Ethambutol: pharm

  • Orally available Well distributed; lungs CSF
  • Renal excretion

9

Pyrazinamide: pharm

  • Orally available Well distributed; lungs CSF
  • Renal excretion

10

Streptomycin: pharm

  • Poor oral abs.(IV/IM) 
  • distr. to TBW accum. in kidney, ear
  • Renal excretion

11

Isoniazid: adverse rxns

  • Low/Medium
  • Vit B6 deficiency-neuritis
  • Hepatic damage (acetylator status important)
  • EtOH

12

Rifampin:adverse rxns

  • Low/Medium
  • Hepatic damage
  • Drug interactions; HIV, steroids, etc….

13

Ethambutol: adverse rxn

  • Low/Medium
  • Optic neuritis
  • not for children (< 6) or in pregnancy
  • Gout

14

Pyrazinamide: adverse rxns

  • Medium/high
  • Hepatic damage – monitor SGOT levels
  • Gout
  • Not in pregnancy (US)

15

Streptomycin: adverse rxns

  • High toxicity
  • Vestibular and auditory toxicity
  • nephrotoxicity

16

Isoniazid: sprectrum/uses

  • Mycobacteria only (TB and M.Ka.)
  • Intracellular activity

17

Rifampin: sprectrum/uses

  • Mycobacteria and Gram +ve
  • Intracellular activity
  • TB, endocarditis
  • H. flu meningitis prophylaxis

18

Ethambutol: sprectrum/uses

  • Mycobacteria only (TB, M.Ka, MAC)
  • Intracellular activity

19

Pyrazinamide: spectrum/uses

  • Mycobacteria only
  • Semi-dormant bacteria in caseous lesions (acidic environment)
  • Variable modest intracellular activity

20

Streptomycin: spectrum/uses

  • Med. Spectrum Gram – aerobes (E. coli, Pseudomonas)
  • limited +
  • TB – alternative 1st line treatment
  • Not intracellular