Antiplatelet, anticoagulant and thombolytic drugs Flashcards Preview

Cardiology > Antiplatelet, anticoagulant and thombolytic drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antiplatelet, anticoagulant and thombolytic drugs Deck (34):
1

Where would an arterial thrombus (white thrombus) become lodged?

Brain (stroke) or other organ

2

Where would a venous (red thombus) become lodged?

Lungs (pulmonary embolus)

3

In vivo pathway tissue factors

VIIa

4

Contact pathway factors

XIIa and IXa

5

X becomes Xa and what does this to?

Changes prothrombin (II) to thrombin IIa
this then converts fibrinogen to fibrin

6

Xa inhibitor

Rivaroxiban

7

Thrombin inhibitors

Dabigatran etexilate
Bivalirudin

8

What state must vitamin K be in to act as an essential cofactor?

In its reduced form (hydroquinone)

9

How does warfarin work?

Structurally similar to vitamin K, competes with vit. K for binding to vitamin K reductase

(prevents conversion of epoxide to hydroquinone)

10

Which factors does warfarin inactivate?

II, VIII, IX and X

11

Pregnancy, hypothyroidism and clotting factors?

Pregnancy = increased synthesis of clotting factors
Hypothyroidism = decreased degradation of clotting factors

12

Treatment for overdose of warfarin?

Vitamin K or concentrate of plasma clotting factors

13

Enoxaparin
Dalteparin

LMWH

14

Name 2 LMWH

Enoxaparin
Dalteparin

15

How is heparin administered?

IV or SC

16

How are LMWH administered?

SC

17

How do you determine optimum dosage for heparin?

In vitro clotting

18

How are LMWH excreted?

Via the kidneys

19

Heparin inhibits which factors?

IIa and Xa

20

LMWH inhibits which factor?

Xa

21

Adverse effects of heparin and LMWH?

Haemorrhage
Osteoporosis
Hypoaldosteronism
Hypersensitivity reactions

22

Direct thrombin inhibitor

Dabigatran etexilate

23

Factor Xa inhibitor

Rivaroxiban

24

How are platelets cross linked?

Fibrinogen

25

What are contained in platelet storage granules?

ADP, 5HT and coagulation factors

(TXA2 is synthesised on demand by COX)

26

Blocks P2Y12 receptor

Clopidogrel

27

Blocks IIb/IIa receptor

Tirofiban

28

Blocks COX-1

Aspirin
(blocks COX and so blocks TXA2 synthesis)

29

Aspirin side effects

GI bleeding and ulceration

30

How is tirofiban administered?

IV
-used to prevent MI in high risk patients with unstable angina (with aspirin and heparin)

31

Drugs which activate plasminogen? (plasminogen --> plasmin --> breaks up fibrin)

Streptokinase
Alteplase
Duteplase

32

Why are alteplase and duteplase given IV?

Short half life

33

Side effect of streptokinase?

Cause allergic reaction

34

Reversing haemorrhage caused by fibrinolytics?

TRANEXAMC ACID (inhibits plasminogen activation)