Antivirals (12) Flashcards Preview

SP18: Pharm Final > Antivirals (12) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antivirals (12) Deck (71):
1

Varicella Zoster, Herpes, and Cytomegalovirus are all part of what group of viruses?

Herpes Virus

DNA

2

T/F: Hep B is a DNA virus.

True

3

T/F: Hep C is a DNA virus.

False

RNA

4

Respiratory syncytial virus is part of which family?

Paramyxoviruses

RNA

5

T/F: Influenza is a orthomyxovirus that is an RNA virus.

True

6

T/F: HIV-1 and HIV-2 are both RNA retroviruses.

True

7

T/F: Different viruses can produce the same disease symptoms.

True

Also some viruses can cause different diseases

8

What is the life cycle for DNA viruses?

DNA polymerase to replicate DNA -> RNA polymerase to make RNA -> translation to make amino acids

9

What is unique about Hep B's life cycle?

DNA virus but can use reverse transcriptase to go from RNA -> DNA

10

Retroviruses use which non-mammalion enzyme to turn their RNA -> DNA?

Reverse transcriptase

11

Which type of virus will make DNA and splice it into the host genome?

Retrovirus

12

T/F: Herpes viruses like to use their own DNA polymerase.

True

Drug target

13

What is different about DNA and RNA viruses uncoating process?

DNA: uncoated at membrane into cytoplasm

RNA: endocytosed into cytoplasm, uncoated at nucleus

14

How does HIV (retrovirus) attach to a host cell?

GP120/41 binds to CD4 receptor

15

In the adaptive immune system, ____________ like macrophages swallow up foreign particles and present them through MHC II to _________ to scan.

antigen presenting cells; CD4+ Helper cells

16

What cells produce interferons?

Th1

Interferons direct leukocyte killing

17

What cells produce antibodies?

B-cell with help from Th2 cells

18

The adaptive immune response includes cellular and humoral immunity. What is the difference?

Cellular: killer cells destroy viral infected cells

Humoral: B-cell and antibody response

19

What are the two effects of interferon?

1. Activate killer cells
2. Induce resistance in uninfected cells

20

T/F: Active immunization takes weeks to develop and is prophylactic.

True

Common vaccines

21

What is passive immunization?

Inject someone with antibodies

Rapid onset

22

What types of receptors are found on specialized interferon producing cells like dendritic cells?

Toll-like receptors - rapidly secrete interferons

Innate response

23

What stimulates normal cells to produce interferon?

Double stranded RNA

24

What does the interferon produced from the innate immune response do?

Tells other cells to resist the virus

25

Which interferon is used therapeutically?

Interferon-alpha

26

T/F: Interferon is effective against RNA, DNA, and retroviruses.

True

27

T/F: Most antiviral agents have a wide spectrum.

False

Targeting specific aspect of virus

28

What are the four DNA viruses?

1. Herpes
2. VZV
3. CMV
4. Hep B

29

What are the three RNA viruses?

1. Influenza
2. RSV
3. Hep C

30

Along with HIV-1 and 2, which other virus utilizes reverse transcriptase?

Hep B

31

What are three ways that drugs affect DNA viruses?

1. Inhibit viral DNA polymerase
2. Affect RNA
3. Inhibit HSV attachment

32

How base analogs (Acyclovir, Ganciclovir, Lamivudine) work?

Resemble DNA/RNA bases to antagonize DNA polymerase/RNA transcriptase

33

T/F: Acyclovir lacks a sugar ring.

True

34

T/F: Base analogs are active on their own.

False

Must be metabolized

35

*How is acyclovir so selective for viral cells?

Activation is started by Viral thymidine kinase - found in infected cells only

36

What happens if acyclovir is added to the viral DNA?

Chain termination

New DNA further inhibits replication

37

T/F: Thymidine kinase is the target of acyclovir.

False

DNA polymerase is target; thymidine kinase helps activate it

38

*T/F: Acyclovir is especially effective against herpes.

True

39

*Which base analog is most effective against CMV?

Ganciclovir

40

*Why is ganciclovir more selective for CMV?

While herpes has thyrimidine kinase, CMV has UL97 which activates Ganciclovir

41

T/F: The hep B reverse transcriptase is similar to HIV reverse transcriptase.

True

50% the same

42

*Which base analog inhibits hep B reverse transcriptase?

Lamivudine (3TC, Epivir)

43

T/F: Lamivudine is used against both Hep B and HIV.

True

44

What is the mechanism of Ribavirin?

Inhibits production and use of RNA

45

What makes Ribavirin special?

It is broad spectrum, used against DNA and RNA

46

What is the mechanism of Docosanol (Abreva)?

Inhibits attachment

47

_____ is the most frequent cause of pneumonia in healthy adults.

Flu

48

M2 channels are found in which type of influenza?

Influenza A = M2

Influenza B = BM2

49

What is the purpose of the M2 receptor?

Open to allow genome release when in acidic endosome

50

*Which drugs block the M2 receptor and prevent the uncoating step?

Adamantane (Symmetrel)

DO NOT block BM2

Only affective against Influenza A

51

What is the role of the neuraminidase?

Mediates release from the cell by cleaving sialic acid

52

Which drug inhibits neuraminidase and therefore virus release?

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)

53

T/F: Tamiflu is only active against influenza B.

False

Both A and B

54

What are the drug targets for Hep C?

1. NS3-4A Protease (Simeprevir)
2. NS5B RNA Polymerase (Sofosbuvir)
3. NS5A (Ledipasvir)

55

What is the function of LTRs in the HIV genome?

They are the splicing substrate that integrase binds to

Also recruit transcription factors for RNA production

56

Which drugs are nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in retroviruses?

Zidovudine (AZT) and Lamivudine (3TC)

57

T/F: Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

True

58

T/F: Resistance is common in HIV treatment.

True

59

T/F: Non-nucleoside inhibitors are only effective against HIV-1.

True

60

T/F: Activated oncogenes promote cell growth.

True

61

What is the effect of an increase in cyclin D?

Decreased cell cycle time -> more mitosis

62

What type of receptor does cyclin D act on?

Receptor tyrosine kinase

63

Why is combo therapy used to treat cancer?

To avoid resistance

Preferable to use agents with different mechanisms

64

How does cytotoxic therapy select for cancer cells?

Targeting cells in mitosis

65

What are the three mechanisms for cytotoxic therapy?

1. Inhibition of nucleotide/DNA synthesis
2. Microtubule/topoisomerase inhibition
3. DNA damage

66

*What is the most common side effect of cytotoxic therapy?

Myelosuppresion

67

What are two ways DNA damage kills cells?

PARP and p53

68

Methotrexate resembles ______ and inhibits __________.

folate; dihydrofolate reductase

also inhibits purine ring synthesis

69

________ is a base analog that is ultimately activated to a version attached to deoxyribose forming FdUMP, and FdUMP inhibits thymidylate synthase which lowers TMP and DNA synthesis

5-Fluorouracil

70

T/F: Taxol inhibits the disassembly of tubulin.

True

71

Topoisomerase inhibitors, covalent modifiers and DNA breaking drugs induce DNA damage resulting in what?

PARP -> necrosis

p53 -> growth arrest and apoptosis