Flashcards in Anxiety Disorders Deck (50):
Apprehension or fear
- Anticipation of threat
- Source of uneasiness is not always known
What are anxiety disorders?
Psychiatric conditions that involve excessive worry
Emotional response to real or perceived danger
What condition often accompanies anxiety disorders?
What are characteristics of "Normal" anxiety?
- Response to threatening situation (Fight or flight)
- Increased HR, BP, RR, muscle tension
- SNS sx (Tremor, sweating, polyuria, diarrhea)
*All beneficial responses in the case of a real threat
What is "Abnormal" anxiety?
Response to normal anxiety is out-of-portion to threat & is more prolonged
What physical sx accompany anxiety?
- Muscle tension
- Dry mouth
- Difficulty swallowing
- Abdominal pain
What are major mediators of anxiety?
- Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Define: separation anxiety
Distress when a person is away from parents, another caregiver, or home
At what age does separation anxiety peak & diminish?
- Peaks btwn 8-18 mo
- Diminishes by 2 ½ years
Separation anxiety usually co-exists w/ what?
Tx of separation anxiety
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy
- Family psychosocial therapy
- Serotonin-reuptake inhibitors
When is suicide risk increased?
If pt has co-existing anxiety
Define: specific phobia
Marked or persistent fear (>6 months) that is excessive or unreasonable cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation
Clinical features of specific phobia
- Severe anxiety when exposed to phobic situations/objects
- Anticipation of phobia induces severe anxiety
- Extreme measures to avoid phobic situations
- Substance abuse common to combat anxiety in these situations
Fear of heights
Fear of open places
Fear of cats
Fear of dogs
Fear of dirt/germs
Fear of strangers
Tx of specific phobia
- Relaxation techniques
- Anti-anxiety meds
Fear of social situations
- Eating in public
- Speaking in front of others
Features of panic vs features of social anxiety disorder
- Sense of suffocation
- Fear of dying
- Muscle twitching
- Anxiety about scrutiny
Tx of social anxiety disorder
- Psychotherapy & pharmacotherapy
- SSRI, benzodiazepines, venlafaxine (Effexor), buspirone (Buspar)
- Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists w/ performance situations
- Cognitive, behavioral, & exposure techniques
Define: panic disorder
Acute attack of anxiety w/ overwhelming feeling of impending doom
- Substances causing shift in acid-base balance
- Substances acting through neurotransmitters
Examples of substances that cause acid-base shift
- Sodium lactate
Examples of substances that act on neurotransmitters
Panic disorder: Psychosocial factors
- Feel that panic comes out of the blue
- More stressful life events
- Hx of child or sexual abuse
- Unconscious ideas about stressful events
Define: panic attack
Abrupt surge of intense fear or physical discomfort, reaching a peak within mins
What should you worry about w/ regards to panic attacks?
What percentage of people become vasovagal & lose consciousness?
Sx of a panic attack
- Palpitations, tachy
- Trembling, shaking
- Chest pain
- Nausea, dizziness
- Chills or hot flashes
Course/Px of panic disorder
- Late adolescence
- Once the pt realizes he/she has panic, they will often become less concerned over the episodes
- May become worse during certain times in life w/ uptick in sx
Tx of panic disorder
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Pharmacotherapy (SSRIs, Benzodiazipines)
What is the length of tx for those w/ panic disorder?
Features of agoraphobia
- Fears/avoids situations bc escape may be difficult
- Provokes anxiety
- Avoidance/fear interferes w/ routine or fxn
- Panic disorder tied to dx
Tx of agoraphobia
- SSRIs (1st-line)
- Tricyclic antidepressants
Excessive uncontrollable worry about everyday things
- Affects daily fxn
GAD can occur w/ what?
- Other anxiety disorders
- Depressive disorders
- Substance abuse
What does GAD usually revolve around?
- Health of self or family
- Being late to appts
GAD: Psychosocial factors
- Response to perceived dangers is inaccurate
- Focus on negative details in environment
- Distorted info processing & thoughts
- Negative view of own ability
*Drugs do NOT provide cure
*Drug therapy often necessary
*Recommended long term
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy
- Insight-oriented therapy
- Pharmacotherapy (SSRIs
What medical conditions can cause anxiety disorder & have the highest occurrence of panic?
- Those awaiting transplants
- Sjögren’s syndrome
- Grave’s disease
Substance-induced anxiety disorder is a result of what?
- Drug abuse
- Medication use
What substances can cause substance-induced anxiety?
- Sympathomimetics (amphetamines, cocaine, & caffeine)
- Serotonergic drugs (LSD & MDMA)
Clinical features of substance-induced anxiety disorder
- Vary with the substance used
- Cognitive impairments
- Memory impairment
- Using alcohol for anxiety ***