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Flashcards in Anxiety Disorders Deck (50):
1

Define: anxiety

Apprehension or fear
- Anticipation of threat
- Source of uneasiness is not always known

2

What are anxiety disorders?

Psychiatric conditions that involve excessive worry

3

Define: fear

Emotional response to real or perceived danger

4

What condition often accompanies anxiety disorders?

Depression

5

What are characteristics of "Normal" anxiety?

- Response to threatening situation (Fight or flight)
- Increased HR, BP, RR, muscle tension
- SNS sx (Tremor, sweating, polyuria, diarrhea)
*All beneficial responses in the case of a real threat

6

What is "Abnormal" anxiety?

Response to normal anxiety is out-of-portion to threat & is more prolonged

7

What physical sx accompany anxiety?

- Twitching/trembling
- Muscle tension
- Headaches
- Sweating
- Dry mouth
- Difficulty swallowing
- Abdominal pain

8

What are major mediators of anxiety?

- Norepinephrine
- Serotonine
- Dopamine
- Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

9

Define: separation anxiety

Distress when a person is away from parents, another caregiver, or home

10

At what age does separation anxiety peak & diminish?

- Peaks btwn 8-18 mo
- Diminishes by 2 ½ years

11

Separation anxiety usually co-exists w/ what?

Anxiety disorder

12

Tx of separation anxiety

- Cognitive-behavioral therapy
- Family psychosocial therapy
- Serotonin-reuptake inhibitors

13

When is suicide risk increased?

If pt has co-existing anxiety

14

Define: specific phobia

Marked or persistent fear (>6 months) that is excessive or unreasonable cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation

15

Clinical features of specific phobia

- Severe anxiety when exposed to phobic situations/objects
- Anticipation of phobia induces severe anxiety
- Extreme measures to avoid phobic situations
- Substance abuse common to combat anxiety in these situations

16

Define: acrophobia

Fear of heights

17

Define: Agoraphobia

Fear of open places

18

Define: Ailurophobia

Fear of cats

19

Define: Cynophobia

Fear of dogs

20

Define: Mysophobia

Fear of dirt/germs

21

Define: Xenophobia

Fear of strangers

22

Tx of specific phobia

- Relaxation techniques
- Anti-anxiety meds
- Desensitization

23

Fear of social situations

- Scrutiny
- Embarrassment
- Eating in public
- Speaking in front of others

24

Features of panic vs features of social anxiety disorder

Panic:
- Breathlessness
- Dizziness
- Sense of suffocation
- Fear of dying

SAD:
- Blushing
- Muscle twitching
- Anxiety about scrutiny

25

Tx of social anxiety disorder

- Psychotherapy & pharmacotherapy
- SSRI, benzodiazepines, venlafaxine (Effexor), buspirone (Buspar)
- Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists w/ performance situations
- Cognitive, behavioral, & exposure techniques

26

Define: panic disorder

Acute attack of anxiety w/ overwhelming feeling of impending doom

27

Panic-inducing substances

- Substances causing shift in acid-base balance
- Substances acting through neurotransmitters

28

Examples of substances that cause acid-base shift

- CO2
- Sodium lactate
- HCO3

29

Examples of substances that act on neurotransmitters

- yohimbine
- flumazenil
- cholecystokinin
- isoproterenol
- caffeine

30

Panic disorder: Psychosocial factors

- Feel that panic comes out of the blue
- More stressful life events
- Hx of child or sexual abuse
- Unconscious ideas about stressful events

31

Define: panic attack

Abrupt surge of intense fear or physical discomfort, reaching a peak within mins

32

What should you worry about w/ regards to panic attacks?

Cardiorespiratory problems

33

What percentage of people become vasovagal & lose consciousness?

20%

34

Sx of a panic attack

- Palpitations, tachy
- Sweating
- Trembling, shaking
- SOB
- Chest pain
- Nausea, dizziness
- Chills or hot flashes
& more!

35

Course/Px of panic disorder

- Late adolescence
- Chronic
- Once the pt realizes he/she has panic, they will often become less concerned over the episodes
- May become worse during certain times in life w/ uptick in sx

36

Tx of panic disorder

- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Pharmacotherapy (SSRIs, Benzodiazipines)

37

What is the length of tx for those w/ panic disorder?

6-12 months
(Sometimes long-term)

38

Features of agoraphobia

- Fears/avoids situations bc escape may be difficult
- Provokes anxiety
- Avoidance/fear interferes w/ routine or fxn
- Panic disorder tied to dx

39

Tx of agoraphobia

- SSRIs (1st-line)
- Benzodiazepines
- Tricyclic antidepressants
- Psychotherapy

40

Define: GAD

Excessive uncontrollable worry about everyday things
- Affects daily fxn

41

GAD can occur w/ what?

- Other anxiety disorders
- Depressive disorders
- Substance abuse

42

What does GAD usually revolve around?

- Job
- Finances
- Health of self or family
- Chores
- Being late to appts

43

GAD: Psychosocial factors

- Response to perceived dangers is inaccurate
- Focus on negative details in environment
- Distorted info processing & thoughts
- Negative view of own ability

44

GAD: Px

Life-long
*Drugs do NOT provide cure
*Drug therapy often necessary

45

GAD: tx

*Recommended long term
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy
- Insight-oriented therapy
- Pharmacotherapy (SSRIs
Benzodiazepines, Buspirone
SNRI)

46

What medical conditions can cause anxiety disorder & have the highest occurrence of panic?

- Cardiomyopathy
- Those awaiting transplants
- Sjögren’s syndrome
- Grave’s disease

47

Substance-induced anxiety disorder is a result of what?

- Drug abuse
- Medication use
- Poison
- Alcohol

48

What substances can cause substance-induced anxiety?

- Sympathomimetics (amphetamines, cocaine, & caffeine)
- Serotonergic drugs (LSD & MDMA)

49

Clinical features of substance-induced anxiety disorder

- Vary with the substance used
- Cognitive impairments
- Memory impairment
- Using alcohol for anxiety ***

50

Tx of substance-induced anxiety

- Removal of offending substance
- If a med; find an alternative
- Limit exposure if environmental
- Tx w/ drug therapy & psychotherapy if it persists after discontinuing the substance