Aortic dissection and aneurysm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Aortic dissection and aneurysm Deck (12):

What is an aortic dissection?

An intimal tear with dissection of blood through the media of the aortic wall forming a false lumen. 


Where does an aortic dissection occur? Why?

Often occur in the proximal 10cm of hte aorta with weakness of pre-existing media. Only here is BP high enough force blood into media. 


What is the most common cause of aortic dissection? How does it cause dissection?


HTN results in hyaline arteriolo sclerosis of the vasa vasorum (small blood vessels the feed blood to the outer layers of the aorta). This causes aorta weakness. Combined with the high stress of HTN, the two cause dissection. 


S/S of aortic dissection?

  • Tearing chest pain
    • Radiates to the back


Complications of aortic dissection?

  • Pericardial tamponade 
  • Obstruction of branching arteries
    • Causes end organ ischemia 


What syndromes are associated with aortic dissection?

  • Marfan's syndrome
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome


What is a thoracic aneurysm?

Balloon-like dilation of the thoracic aorta


What are the complications of thoracic aneurysm?

  • Major
    • Aortic valve insufficiency
  • Minor
    • Compression of mediastinal structures
    • Thrombosis/embolism


What is the primary associative cause of thoracic aneurysm?

Tertiary Syphilis


What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

Balloon like dilation of the abdominal aorta. Usually arises below the renal artery but above the aortic bifurcation. 


What is the primary associative cause of abdominal aortic aneurysm?

  • Atherosclerosis
    • Increases diffusion barrier to the media resulting in atrophy and weakness of the vessel wall


Complications of abdominal aneurysm?

  • Major
    • Rupture especially when > 5cm
    • Triad presentation:
      • Hypotension
      • Pulsatile abdominal mass
      • Flank pain
  • Minor
    • Compression of local structures
    • Thombosis/embolism