AORTIC/PULM VALVES Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AORTIC/PULM VALVES Deck (29):
1

Aortic Valve Pathology can be

-normal
-"bicuspid" (BAV)
-calcific
-rheumatic

2

Aortic Sclerosis

increases in prevalence w/ age

3

Aortic Stenosis

increases in prevalence w/ age

4

calcification is a condition in which calcium deposits form on the aortic valve in the heart. These deposits can cause narrowing at the opening of the aortic valve. This narrowing can become severe enough to reduce blood flow through the aortic valve, a condition called _____________

aortic valve stenosis.

5

________- is defined as calcification and thickening of a trileaflet aortic valve in the absence of obstruction of ventricular outflow.

Aortic valve sclerosis

6

Factors responsible for the development of calcific aortic stenosis

Atherosclerotic
Genetic
"Osteoblast phenotype"

7

Once thought a degenerative disease, the mechanism by which a healthy tricuspid aortic valve becomes stenotic is now believed to be similar to that of __________

atherosclerosis.

8

The tricuspid aortic valves become stenotic in the sixth, seventh, and eighth decades of life, mainly caused by _____________ and not by fusion of the commissures

calcium deposits in the valve cusps

9

In developed countries, rheumatic fever has become a very rare cause of aortic stenosis.

When the aortic valve is affected by __________ the mitral valve is almost always affected as well.

rheumatic heart disease

10

The ____________ of the aortic valve serves as the mainstay of diagnosis.

echocardiogram with Doppler interrogation

11

____________ is recommended for individuals with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis.

Valve replacement

(Such patients have a dire outlook, with 75% dying within 3 years of symptom onset)

12

The cardinal symptoms of severe aortic stenosis are:

angina
syncope
shortness of breath

13

The ___________ is the most common congenital cardiac malformation. Males are affected 4:1

bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)

AD: Echocardiographic screening of first-degree relatives is warranted.

14

(BAV) bicuspid aortic valves result by abnormal aortic cusp formation during valvulogenesis.

_________ fuse to form a single aberrant cusp, larger than its counterpart yet smaller than 2 normal cusps combined.


Adjacent cusps

15

BAV is associated with _________________. In light of this, the BAVs should be considered a disease of the entire aortic root.

aortic dilation
aneurysms
dissection

16

Complications of Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Valvular Complications

Aortic stenosis
Aortic Insufficiency: Cusp prolapse
Endocarditis

17

Complications of Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Vascular Complications

Aortic dilation
Aneurysm formation
Aortic dissection
Asociations: Coarctaction, PDA, Coronary anomalies

18

Management of Bicuspid Aortic Valve

serial echocardiography at regular intervals

19

Bicuspid aortic valve disease is the most common congenital cardiac defect, often associated with dilation of the proximal ascending aorta secondary to abnormalities of the ___________.

aortic media

20

Aortic Regurgitation

condition that occurs when your heart's aortic valve doesn't close tightly. Aortic valve regurgitation allows some of the blood that was just pumped out of your heart's main pumping chamber (left ventricle) to leak back into it.

21

Aortic Regurgitation
Valve disease

Rheumatic
Degenerative
Endocarditis
Congenital
Bicuspid
Quadricuspid

22

Aortic Regurgitation
Disease of the aorta

Dissection
Marfan’s
Atherosclerosis
Annulo-aortic ectasia
Syphilis
Ankylosing spondilitis
Osteogenesis imperfecta

23

Rapid forceful carotid upstroke followed by rapid decline

Corrigan’s pulse
(Signs of Aortic Regurgitation)

24

Diastolic blanching in nail bed when slightly compressed

Quincke’s pulse
Signs of Aortic Regurgitation

25

Systolic and diastolic femoral bruits when compressed with stethoscope

Durozie’z sign
Signs of Aortic Regurgitation

26

Systolic BP in legs > 30 mmHg than in arms

Hill’s sign
Signs of Aortic Regurgitation

27

valve that influences the blood flow from heart to lungs slows the blood flow. Adults occasionally have the condition as a complication of another illness, but mostly develops before birth as a congenital heart defect.

Pulmonic Stenosis

28

Stenosis of the pulmonic valve is one of the more common _________ Most of the patients are children however may come to attention during adolescence or adulthood.

forms of congenital heart disease.

29

In recent years ______________ has largely replaced surgical valvotomy except in patients with dysplastic valves.

percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty