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Flashcards in AOS 1 SAC 1 Deck (42):
1

define sensation

the process by which the sense organs receive information about the environment and transmit it to the brain.

2

define perception

the process whereby the brain organises and interprets the incoming sensory information.

3

3 stages of sesnation

reception
transduction
transmission

4

3 stages of perception

selection
organisation
interpretation

5

what are the 11 parts of the eye?

pupil, cornea, retina, blind spot, optic nerve, tapetum, sclera, lens, vitreous humor, iris, aqueous humor.

6

define absolute threshold

the minimum amount of stimulus energy needed before it can be detected.

7

what are rods

located all around the retina
used for peripheral vision
used for darker lighting
responds to green and blue lighting

8

what are cones

works best in bright lights
produce colour sensation
responds to yellow and green lighting
pick up fine details
found mainly in centre of retina

9

define size constancy (perceptual constancies)

refers to the fact that we maintain a constant perception of an objects size even if the object moves.

10

define shape constancy (perceptual constancies)

refers to the fact that we can interpret objects when viewed from any angle.

11

what are the gestalt principles

phi phenomenon- cartoon
figure ground- contour line
camouflage- blends into background
closure- perceive object despite being incomplete
similarity- group together to provide whole unit
proximity- individual parts are close together

12

define perceptual set

a predisposition to perceive stimuli in a specific way. interpreting what we see according to certain preconceptions. to attend only certain features or aspects of our field of view.

13

what are some factors influencing perceptual set

previous experience
context
motivation
emotion

14

explain the ponzo illusion

its the upper horizontal line in each diagram is perceived to be longer than the lower horizontal line.

15

explain the muller-lyer illusion

it consists of 2 lines of equal length, 1 line has regular arrowheads and the other has inverted arrowheads making it look longer than the other.

16

explain the ames room illusion

its an intentionally distorted room viewed through a peephole disrupting perceptual constancies and misleading the viewer to think that people are changing size when they walk across the room from 1 corner to the other.

17

what are the 5 primary tastes

bitter
salty
sour
sweet
umami

18

how many taste buds in the mouth

around 10,000 in the mouth and throat

19

how many receptor cells does each taste bud have

each taste bud has 50-150 receptor cells which only live about 10 days

20

difference between taste and flavour

taste = in the mouth
flavour = smell, texture & taste

21

what are factors influencing taste & flavour

biological factors
psychological factors
social factors

22

what are the scientific method steps

1. identify the area of research, form an aim
2. collect info
3. identify research question & form hypothesis
4. design research method to test hypothesis
5. collect and analyse data
6. draw a conclusion
7. report findings
8. test the conclusion

23

define independent variable (IV)

it is deliberately manipulated or varied in some way by the experimenter.

24

define dependant variable (DV)

it is the property that is measured in the research. it depends on the IV

25

define operationalisaion

it is using a certain method of testing and showing the range of testing in the same way

26

define hypothesis

it is a clear statement predicting how changes in the IV will effect the value of the DV

27

define extraneous variable

it is a variable other than the IV that could cause change to the value of the DV

28

what is another variable that can affect the DV

The cofounding variable. If this exists the experiment then becomes a waste of time as nothing is valid.

29

what is random sampling

it is a sampling procedure where all the population has an equal chance

30

define feature detectors

they are cells that individually respond to lines of a certain length, a certain angle or lines moving in a certain direction

31

define placebo

it refers to the participants behaviour being influenced by the experiment of how they should behave

32

define experimenter effect

it refers to the outcome of an experiment being unintentionally affected by the experimenter

33

function of lens

clear, flexible structure reflecting image on the retina

34

function of retina

detects images focused by lens and cornea

35

function of aqueous humor

clear fluid that keeps cornea in shape

36

function of optic nerve

bundle of nerve finders that carry info from retina to the brain

37

2 parts of binocular depth cues & explain

retinal disparity- because our eyes are separated apart they both receive 2 different images, both sent to the brain.
convergence- when an object becomes closer to the eye, the eyes become crossed and vision becomes blurry, a lot of pressure on ciliary muscles.

38

1 part of monocular depth cues & explain

accommodation- it involves the lens of the eye changing shape so it can focus light rays on the retina. greater the tension on the ciliary muscles the closer the object.

39

5 parts of pictorial depth cues & explain

linear perspective- parallel lines extend to an imaginary point
interposition- putting objects in front of the other to create depth cues
texture gradient- more detail is seen at the front of the image
relative size- largest image is nearest, smallest is furthest
height in visual field- objects further away are closer to the horizon

40

define depth perception

the ability to accurately judge 3D space and distance using cues in the environment

41

define synaethesia

is an anomalous blending of the senses in which the stimulation of one modality simultaneously produces sensation in a different modality. Synesthetes hear colours, feel sounds and taste shapes

42

define visual light spectrum

Visible light is a form of electromagnetic radiation, as are radio waves, infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and microwaves. Generally, visible light is defined as the wavelengths that are visible to most human eyes