Flashcards in AP Biology Summer Vocabulary Deck (100):
active site -
The part of the enzyme where the substrate will bind.
active transport -
The movement of molecules across the cell membrane with the use of ATP.
alternation of generations -
The life cycle of a plant. Includes both a multicellular haploid and diploid form.
The functional unit of the lung.
amino acids -
The 20 molecules that make proteins via peptide bonds.
amniotic egg -
The hard-shelled egg that allows reptiles and birds to have internal fertilization, but not have the organism created inside the mother.
Proteins made by the B cells that immobilizes antigens.
The three nucleotide combination on the transfer RNA
The foreign particles or substances that trigger an immune response.
A high energy molecule that can be split apart to release energy for many processes.
An organism that makes its own food.
Plant hormones cause phototropism by elongating the dark side of plant.
binary fission -
The asexual reproduction in bacteria.
A chemical that can release or absorb hydrogen ions, maintaining the pH of a solution at a constant level.
The smallest blood vessels that connect veins to arteries and are the site of all exchange.
A molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
cell cycle -
The continuous cycle that all somatic cells do. Includes mitosis, cytokinesis, and interphase.
cell wall -
Structural part of some cells that can be made of cellulose, peptidoglycan, or chitin.
cellular respiration -
The process of breaking down glucose to make ATP.
The cell part responsible for photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells.
The steroid embedded in the cell membrane that keeps the membrane fluid and strong.
The unwound form of DNA that is accessible for making RNA.
The DNA when it is wrapped up tightly around proteins during metaphase.
The three nucleotide combination on the messenger RNA that matches the three letter combination on the transfer RNA and has the information to code for one amino acid.
The attractive force between polar molecules of the same substance.
The attractive force between polar molecules of the same substance.
covalent bond -
A intramolecular bond where atoms are sharing electrons equally.
The waxy protective layer on plants that prevents dessication.
After mitosis or meiosis, it is the "splitting" of the cytoplasm to form two or four new cells each with its own nucleus.
dehydration synthesis -
The type of reaction that links monomers to make polymers and releases water in the process.
Cells that have two copies of each kind of chromosome.
DNA ligase -
The enzyme that splices DNA together in genetic engineering and the okazaki fragments of replication.
The primary site of chemical digestion in humans.
endoplasmic reticulum -
The series of membranes inside the cell that allow for passage of materials through the cytoplasm and the synthesis of lipids.
The theory that eukaryotic cells came from prokaryotic cells that lived closely together. (mitochondria and chloroplasts)
An organic catalyst that lowers the activation energy of chemical reactions, thus increasing the rate of reaction.
The biome created when freshwater mixes with salt water to form brackish water that is a very productive area.
eukaryotic cell -
A cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
external fertilization -
When an egg and sperm unite outside the body of the mother.
facilitated transport -
The movement of molecules across the cell membrane without the use of ATP, but with the help of a protein.
The ripened ovary of a plant.
The haploid cells produced by meiosis.
The section of DNA that is responsible for the production of one polypeptide.
genetic engineering -
The process of combining the DNA of two different organisms.
The entire complement of chromosomes in an individual.
global warming -
The increase in green house gases that causes heat to be trapped and raises temperatures which could lead to flooding and climate change.
The three carbon backbone molecule of the triglycerides.
The polysaccharide that is how animals store glucose in their liver.
The site of meiosis in humans that includes the ovaries and testes.
cells that have one copy of each kind of chromosome.
The condition of animals where they keep their internal environment constant for a specific characteristic often as a result of negative feedback.
The description of an individual who has the same allele for a trait on both homologous chromosomes.
hydrogen bond -
The weak intermolecular bond that forms between water molecules that causes them to "stick" to each other.
The "body" of the fungus.
A testable explanation for a question that is often written in if...then... form.
incomplete dominance -
The type of inheritance where the heterozygous individual has a blend of the dominant and recessive trait.
independent variable -
The one difference between the experimental group and the controlled group.
Behavior that an organism is not learned and is genetically determined.
The hormone that lowers blood sugar by storing it as glycogen in the liver and increasing cellular uptake.
The type of population growth where the population has reached the carrying capacity and plateaus as indicated by a J curve.
marker proteins -
Proteins embedded in the cell membrane which allow organisms to differentiate between self and nonself cells.
The type of nuclear division that leads to four nuclei with a haploid complement of chromosomes produced from one diploid nucleus.
messenger RNA -
RNA made from DNA that carries the nucleotide template to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
In eukaryotic cells it is the site of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain of aerobic cellular respiration.
The type of nuclear division that leads to two nuclei with the entire diploid complement of chromosomes.
A change in the DNA either by changing a chromosome's structure or the order of nucleotides.
natural selection -
The theory that states how a population changes over time to reflect the individuals who are most successful.
The functional unit of the kidney.
The monomer subunit that links together along the sugar phosphate backbone to form nucleic acids (DNA/RNA).
The tube that leads from the ovary to the uterus that is the site of fertilization in humans.
The gland that releases glucagon and insulin to help control blood sugar.
passive transport -
The transport of molecules across the cell membrane without the use of energy.
The chemical reaction that makes glucose and oxygen from water and carbon in the presence of sunlight.
pituitary gland -
The gland that controls the release of hormones from many other glands.
The liquid noncellular component of blood.
plasma membrane -
The outer selectively permeable membrane of ALL cells.
polar bond -
A bond where the atoms are sharing electrons unequally creating small negative and positive charges on the atoms.
The members of a species within a specific areas that has gene flow between its members.
primary productivity -
The amount of photosynthesis in an ecosystem.
Cells that have no nucleus or membrane bound organelles.
The kingdom that has predominantly unicellular eukaryotic organisms including algae, protozoans, and slime molds.
The duplication of the DNA during the middle "s phase" of interphase during the cell cycle.
restriction enzymes -
Enzymes that are used to "cut" DNA into pieces that often have "sticky" ends.
The part of the cell responsible for dehydration synthesis of proteins using the mRNA template.
The single stranded nucleic acid with uracil instead of the thymine found in DNA.
RNA polymerase -
The enzyme that makes RNA from DNA.
The structure responsible for water absorption in plants.
sex chromosomes -
The 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans that determine whether the offspring is male or female.
A group of similar looking organisms that can reproduce to make fertile offspring.
spindle fibers -
The microtubules that are used to separate the chromosomes and drag them to separate sides during nuclear division.
The small openings on the underside of leaves that allow for carbon dioxide to come in and oxygen to escape.
A long term relationship between organisms of two different species where at least one of the organisms benefits.
The making of RNA from DNA.
Transfer RNA -
RNA made from DNA that attaches to amino acids and delivers them to the mRNA in the ribosome.
The process of making proteins from the mRNA template.
The evaporation of water from the stomata of a leaf that allows water to be pulled up a stem.
The place where the blastocyst implants and grows in a human female.
The vascular tissue in a plant that carries water up the roots to the rest of the plant.