AP Biology Summer Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AP Biology Summer Vocabulary Deck (100):
1

active site -

The part of the enzyme where the substrate will bind.

2

active transport -

The movement of molecules across the cell membrane with the use of ATP.

3

alternation of generations -

The life cycle of a plant. Includes both a multicellular haploid and diploid form.

4

alveoli -

The functional unit of the lung.

5

amino acids -

The 20 molecules that make proteins via peptide bonds.

6

amniotic egg -

The hard-shelled egg that allows reptiles and birds to have internal fertilization, but not have the organism created inside the mother.

7

angiosperm -

Flowing plants.

8

antibodies -

Proteins made by the B cells that immobilizes antigens.

9

anticodon -

The three nucleotide combination on the transfer RNA

10

antigen -

The foreign particles or substances that trigger an immune response.

11

ATP -

A high energy molecule that can be split apart to release energy for many processes.

12

autotroph -

An organism that makes its own food.

13

auxins -

Plant hormones cause phototropism by elongating the dark side of plant.

14

binary fission -

The asexual reproduction in bacteria.

15

buffer -

A chemical that can release or absorb hydrogen ions, maintaining the pH of a solution at a constant level.

16

capillary -

The smallest blood vessels that connect veins to arteries and are the site of all exchange.

17

catalyst -

A molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.

18

cell cycle -

The continuous cycle that all somatic cells do. Includes mitosis, cytokinesis, and interphase.

19

cell wall -

Structural part of some cells that can be made of cellulose, peptidoglycan, or chitin.

20

cellular respiration -

The process of breaking down glucose to make ATP.

21

chloroplast -

The cell part responsible for photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells.

22

cholesterol -

The steroid embedded in the cell membrane that keeps the membrane fluid and strong.

23

chromatin -

The unwound form of DNA that is accessible for making RNA.

24

chromosomes -

The DNA when it is wrapped up tightly around proteins during metaphase.

25

Codon -

The three nucleotide combination on the messenger RNA that matches the three letter combination on the transfer RNA and has the information to code for one amino acid.

26

cohesion -

The attractive force between polar molecules of the same substance.

27

cohesion -

The attractive force between polar molecules of the same substance.

28

covalent bond -

A intramolecular bond where atoms are sharing electrons equally.

29

cuticle -

The waxy protective layer on plants that prevents dessication.

30

cytokinesis -

After mitosis or meiosis, it is the "splitting" of the cytoplasm to form two or four new cells each with its own nucleus.

31

dehydration synthesis -

The type of reaction that links monomers to make polymers and releases water in the process.

32

diploid -

Cells that have two copies of each kind of chromosome.

33

DNA ligase -

The enzyme that splices DNA together in genetic engineering and the okazaki fragments of replication.

34

duodenum -

The primary site of chemical digestion in humans.

35

endoplasmic reticulum -

The series of membranes inside the cell that allow for passage of materials through the cytoplasm and the synthesis of lipids.

36

endosymbiosis -

The theory that eukaryotic cells came from prokaryotic cells that lived closely together. (mitochondria and chloroplasts)

37

Enzyme -

An organic catalyst that lowers the activation energy of chemical reactions, thus increasing the rate of reaction.

38

Estuary -

The biome created when freshwater mixes with salt water to form brackish water that is a very productive area.

39

eukaryotic cell -

A cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.

40

external fertilization -

When an egg and sperm unite outside the body of the mother.

41

facilitated transport -

The movement of molecules across the cell membrane without the use of ATP, but with the help of a protein.

42

fruit -

The ripened ovary of a plant.

43

gametes -

The haploid cells produced by meiosis.

44

gene -

The section of DNA that is responsible for the production of one polypeptide.

45

genetic engineering -

The process of combining the DNA of two different organisms.

46

genome -

The entire complement of chromosomes in an individual.

47

global warming -

The increase in green house gases that causes heat to be trapped and raises temperatures which could lead to flooding and climate change.

48

glycerol -

The three carbon backbone molecule of the triglycerides.

49

glycogen -

The polysaccharide that is how animals store glucose in their liver.

50

gonads -

The site of meiosis in humans that includes the ovaries and testes.

51

haploid -

cells that have one copy of each kind of chromosome.

52

homeostasis -

The condition of animals where they keep their internal environment constant for a specific characteristic often as a result of negative feedback.

53

homozygous -

The description of an individual who has the same allele for a trait on both homologous chromosomes.

54

hydrogen bond -

The weak intermolecular bond that forms between water molecules that causes them to "stick" to each other.

55

hyphae -

The "body" of the fungus.

56

hypothesis -

A testable explanation for a question that is often written in if...then... form.

57

incomplete dominance -

The type of inheritance where the heterozygous individual has a blend of the dominant and recessive trait.

58

independent variable -

The one difference between the experimental group and the controlled group.

59

innate -

Behavior that an organism is not learned and is genetically determined.

60

insulin -

The hormone that lowers blood sugar by storing it as glycogen in the liver and increasing cellular uptake.

61

logistic -

The type of population growth where the population has reached the carrying capacity and plateaus as indicated by a J curve.

62

marker proteins -

Proteins embedded in the cell membrane which allow organisms to differentiate between self and nonself cells.

63

meiosis -

The type of nuclear division that leads to four nuclei with a haploid complement of chromosomes produced from one diploid nucleus.

64

messenger RNA -

RNA made from DNA that carries the nucleotide template to the ribosome for protein synthesis.

65

mitochondria -

In eukaryotic cells it is the site of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain of aerobic cellular respiration.

66

mitosis -

The type of nuclear division that leads to two nuclei with the entire diploid complement of chromosomes.

67

mutations -

A change in the DNA either by changing a chromosome's structure or the order of nucleotides.

68

natural selection -

The theory that states how a population changes over time to reflect the individuals who are most successful.

69

nephron -

The functional unit of the kidney.

70

nucleotides -

The monomer subunit that links together along the sugar phosphate backbone to form nucleic acids (DNA/RNA).

71

oviduct -

The tube that leads from the ovary to the uterus that is the site of fertilization in humans.

72

pancreas -

The gland that releases glucagon and insulin to help control blood sugar.

73

passive transport -

The transport of molecules across the cell membrane without the use of energy.

74

photosynthesis -

The chemical reaction that makes glucose and oxygen from water and carbon in the presence of sunlight.

75

pituitary gland -

The gland that controls the release of hormones from many other glands.

76

plasma -

The liquid noncellular component of blood.

77

plasma membrane -

The outer selectively permeable membrane of ALL cells.

78

polar bond -

A bond where the atoms are sharing electrons unequally creating small negative and positive charges on the atoms.

79

population -

The members of a species within a specific areas that has gene flow between its members.

80

primary productivity -

The amount of photosynthesis in an ecosystem.

81

prokaryotic -

Cells that have no nucleus or membrane bound organelles.

82

protista -

The kingdom that has predominantly unicellular eukaryotic organisms including algae, protozoans, and slime molds.

83

replication -

The duplication of the DNA during the middle "s phase" of interphase during the cell cycle.

84

restriction enzymes -

Enzymes that are used to "cut" DNA into pieces that often have "sticky" ends.

85

ribosome -

The part of the cell responsible for dehydration synthesis of proteins using the mRNA template.

86

RNA -

The single stranded nucleic acid with uracil instead of the thymine found in DNA.

87

RNA polymerase -

The enzyme that makes RNA from DNA.

88

root -

The structure responsible for water absorption in plants.

89

sex chromosomes -

The 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans that determine whether the offspring is male or female.

90

species -

A group of similar looking organisms that can reproduce to make fertile offspring.

91

spindle fibers -

The microtubules that are used to separate the chromosomes and drag them to separate sides during nuclear division.

92

stomata -

The small openings on the underside of leaves that allow for carbon dioxide to come in and oxygen to escape.

93

symbiosis -

A long term relationship between organisms of two different species where at least one of the organisms benefits.

94

transcription -

The making of RNA from DNA.

95

Transfer RNA -

RNA made from DNA that attaches to amino acids and delivers them to the mRNA in the ribosome.

96

Translation -

The process of making proteins from the mRNA template.

97

Transpiration -

The evaporation of water from the stomata of a leaf that allows water to be pulled up a stem.

98

Uterus -

The place where the blastocyst implants and grows in a human female.

99

Xylem -

The vascular tissue in a plant that carries water up the roots to the rest of the plant.

100

Zygote -

The fertilized egg.