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Flashcards in AP Gov Ch.14 Viridian Leal Deck (31):

interest group

a collection of people or organizations that tries to influence public policy.

The American Association for Retired Persons is a widely popular interest group created to empower people to choose how they live as they age.


American Anti-Slavery Society

A major interest group, founded in 1833, to advocate for the abolition of the institution of slavery throughout the US.

The American-Anti Slavery Society was founded by two freed slaves, William Lloyd Garrison, and Theodore Dwight Weld.


Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

A public interest group created in 1874 with the goal of outlawing the sale of liquor. Its activities included prayer groups, protest marches, lobbying, and the destruction of saloons.

The WCTU perceived alcohol as a cause and consequence of larger social problems rather than as a personal weakness.


The Grange

Founded in 1867 as an educational organization for farmers, The Grange evolved into the first truly national interest group by working to protect the political and economic concerns of farming communities and rural area.

The Grange grew rapidly after the panic of 1873 when farmers were plagues with low prices for their produce.



Interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his or her organizations or client through political and/or financial persuasion.

The largely popular lobbyist group in the U.S is the US Chamber of Commerce whose goal is to form business networks. They are the largest spending lobbyist group in the US and work closely with republicans.


Progressive movement

A broad group of political and social activists from the 1890's to the 1920's who opposed corruption in government, supported regulation of monopolies, and sought improvement of socioeconomic conditions.

The progressive movement started under president Theodore Roosevelt and went onto President Wilson's presidency. The goal was to stop Robber Baron.


public interest group

an organization that seeks a collective good that if achieved will not selectively and materially benefit group members.

Public interest groups typically split into two categories, economic and non economic because some have an interest in helping the environment all over communities but others are more focused on the government.


American Federation Labor (AFL)

Founded in 1886, the AFL brought skilled workers from several trades together into one strong national organization for the first time. It merged in 1955 with the Congress of Industrial Organizations to form the AFL-CIO.

Skilled workers wanted higher wages and better working conditions therefore created strikes and boycotts.


National Association of Manufacturers (NAM)

An organization founded in 1895 by manufacturers to combat the growth of organized labor.

The United States was in the middle of a deep recession, and many of the nation's manufacturers saw a strong need to export their products in other countries.


U.S Chamber of Commerce

a major pro-business lobbying group founded in 1912.

The goal for the U.S Chamber of Commerce is for local organizations of businesses to further interests of businesses.


trade association

a group that represents a specific industry.

The trade association was founded and is funded by businesses.


Jerry Falwell

A Southern Baptist minister who, in 1978, founded the conservative religious interest the Moral Majority.

Jerry Falwell founded the Lynchburg Christian Academy in 1967 and Liberty Baptist College in 1971.


Moral Majority

A conservative religious interest group credited with helping to mobilize conservative Evangelical Christian voters from its founding in 1978 through the presidency of Ronald Reagan (1982-1989).

Jerry Falwell founded the moral majority group.


Pat Robertson

A Southern Baptist minister and television evangelist who ran for president in 1988 and in 1989 founded the conservative religious interest group the Christian Coalition.

Pat serves as chancellor and CEO of Regent University and chairman of the Christian Broadcasting Network


Christian Coalition

A religious interest group founded in 1989 to advance conservative Christian principles and traditional values in American politics.

The Christian Coalition's goals are to gain working control of the Republican Party through grassroots organizing and to elect Christian candidates to office.


National Riffle Association (NRA)

The major gun-rights lobbying group in the U.S, which opposes gun control and advances an expansive interpretation of the Second Amendment.

Up to this day, the NRA continues to face public criticism for supporting gun rights when mass shootings have occurred with ordinary people.



A large labor union founded in 1955 by the merging of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and its one-time rival the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).

The AFL has 55 national unions.


social capital

Cooperative relationships that facilitate the resolution of collective problems.

Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central.


civic virtue

the tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good.

It is important to have civic virtue and representatives to have civic virtue so the citizens participate in government and make it work well.


pluralist theory

the theory that political power is distributed among a wide array of diverse and competing interest groups.

Because groups of individuals try to maximize their interests, the pluralist theory exists.


disturbance theory

the theory that interest groups form as a result of changes in the political system.

When interest groups feel threatened, they follow the disturbance theory.


transactions theory

the theory that public policies are the result of narrowly defined exchanges or transactions among political actors


collective good

Something of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember of a group, for example, a tax write-off or a better environment.

Economics, and political science are examples of the common good.


economic interest group

a group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members.

NAM, and AFL-CIO are major economic interest groups.


political action committee (PAC)

Officially recognized fund-raising organization that represents interest groups and is allowed by federal law to make contributions directly to candidates' campaigns.

There are three types of PACs and the difference between them stems from how they are created, where they get donations, and how they can contribute their money.



the activities of a group or organization that seek to persuade political leaders to support the groups' position

Television news outlets tried to persuade the audience with their biased opinions and broadcasts during political issues.


Marian Wright Edelman

A lawyer who in 1973 founded the Children's Defense Fund to protect the rights of children, particularly those who are members of disadvantaged groups.

The Children's Defense Fund pursues policies and programs that provide health care to children, reduce the impact of poverty on children, protect them from abuse and neglect, and provide them with educational opportunities.



a person who finances a group or individual activity.

In today's society, anyone can start a patron and the public can help support it by making donations and typically receiving exclusive benefits in return.


Lobbying Disclosure Act

A 1995 federal law that employed a strict definition of lobbyist and established strict reporting requirements on the activities of lobbyists.

Through the act, legislation aimed at bringing increased accountability to federal lobbying practices in the United States.


free rider problem

Potential members who fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing effort.

Some solutions to the free-rider program include taxing and soliciting donations.


Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007

Lobbying reform banning gifts to members of Congress and their staffs, toughening disclosure requirements, and increasing time limits on moving from the federal government to the private sector.

The Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007 amended parts of the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 by securing the government.