a need or desire that serves to energize or direct behavior
What are needs or desires that energize behavior toward a goal?
To be considered a true instinct, or inherited behavior pattern characteristic of a species, what must it be?
An instinct must be performed automatically in the same way by all members of a species in response to a specific stimulus.
What is the level of alertness, wakefulness, and activation caused by activity in the central nervous system?
List four primary drives.
need to sleep
drive to reproduce
The desire to obtain learned reinforcers, like money or social acceptance, is known as __________.
Secondary reinforcers are also known as secondary drives.
What are the four primary theories attempting to explain the link between neurophysiology and motivated behavior?
Which theory of motivation, supported by evolutionary psychology, contends that the learning of species-specific behavior motivates organisms to do whatever is necessary to ensure their survival?
What does the arousal theory of motivation state?
The arousal theory of motivation states that there is an optimum level of arousal (or: alertness and activation) at which performance on a given task is optimal.
What is the Yerkes-Dodson law, and on what theory of motivation is it based?
The Yerkes-Dodson law states that tasks of moderate difficulty elicit the highest level of performance. High levels of arousal for easy tasks and low levels of arousal for difficult tasks are preferred.
This law is based off of the arousal theory of motivation.
The opponent-process theory of motivation, most relevant to the concept of __________, suggests that we are motivated to seek stimuli that make us feel emotion, after which an opposing motivational force brings us back in the direction of a baseline.
Which theory of motivation posits that psychological needs put stress on the body and that we are motivated to reduce this negative experience?
In order for one's "general style of dealing with others and the environment" to be considered their "personality," what must it be?
What are the four broad theories of personality?
Who is credited as being the "leader" of the psychoanalytic school of thought?
What is psychodynamic theory?
a psychological approach based on a marriage of Freudian concepts (i.e. the subconscious) with more modern ideas
According to Freud, what two parts could the mind be divided into?
Freud referred to life energy as __________.
Although Freud contended that the subconscious plays a major role in behavior, its contents are not accessible. They become accessible through __________ or revealing the __________ of dreams.
freudian slips; latent content
This level, just below the level of conscious awareness, contains thoughts, memories, feelings, and images that are easily recalled.
According to Freud, what two factors lie within the subconscious?
source of one's problems
What is free association?
the patient reports whatever comes to mind, while the therapist analyzes the responses and looks for themes that may reveal the subconscious