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Flashcards in AP Psychology Crash Course Deck (22):
1

motivation

 

a need or desire that serves to energize or direct behavior

 

2

What are needs or desires that energize behavior toward a goal?

 

motives

 

3

To be considered a true instinct, or inherited behavior pattern characteristic of a species, what must it be?

 

stereotypical 

An instinct must be performed automatically in the same way by all members of a species in response to a specific stimulus.

 

4

What is the level of alertness, wakefulness, and activation caused by activity in the central nervous system?

 

arousal

 

5

List four primary drives. 

 

  1. hunger
  2. thirst
  3. need to sleep
  4. drive to reproduce 
 

6

The desire to obtain learned reinforcers, like money or social acceptance, is known as __________. 

 
 

secondary reinforcers

Secondary reinforcers are also known as secondary drives.

 
 

7

What are the four primary theories attempting to explain the link between neurophysiology and motivated behavior?

 

  1. instinct theory
  2. arousal theory
  3. opponent-process theory
  4. drive-reduction theory
 

8

Which theory of motivation, supported by evolutionary psychology, contends that the learning of species-specific behavior motivates organisms to do whatever is necessary to ensure their survival?

 
 

instinct theory

 
 

9

What does the arousal theory of motivation state?

 

The arousal theory of motivation states that there is an optimum level of arousal (or: alertness and activation) at which performance on a given task is optimal.

 

10

What is the Yerkes-Dodson law, and on what theory of motivation is it based? 

 
 

The Yerkes-Dodson law states that tasks of moderate difficulty elicit the highest level of performance. High levels of arousal for easy tasks and low levels of arousal for difficult tasks are preferred.

This law is based off of the arousal theory of motivation. 

 
 

11

The opponent-process theory of motivation, most relevant to the concept of __________, suggests that we are motivated to seek stimuli that make us feel emotion, after which an opposing motivational force brings us back in the direction of a baseline.

 
 
 

addiction

 
 
 

12

Which theory of motivation posits that psychological needs put stress on the body and that we are motivated to reduce this negative experience?

 

drive-reduction theory

 

13

In order for one's "general style of dealing with others and the environment" to be considered their "personality," what must it be?

 
 

enduring

 
 

14

What are the four broad theories of personality?

 

  1. psychoanalytic
  2. humanistic
  3. social-cognitive
  4. trait theories 
 

15

Who is credited as being the "leader" of the psychoanalytic school of thought? 

 

Sigmund Freud

 

16

What is psychodynamic theory? 

 
 
 

a psychological approach based on a marriage of Freudian concepts (i.e. the subconscious) with more modern ideas

 
 
 

17

According to Freud, what two parts could the mind be divided into?

 

  1. the conscious
  2. the subconscious
 

18

Freud referred to life energy as __________.

 
 

libido

 
 

19

Although Freud contended that the subconscious plays a major role in behavior, its contents are not accessible. They become accessible through __________ or  revealing the __________ of dreams. 

 
 

freudian slips; latent content

 
 

20

This level, just below the level of conscious awareness, contains thoughts, memories, feelings, and images that are easily recalled.

 

 
 
 

preconscious

 
 
 

21

According to Freud, what two factors lie within the subconscious? 

 
 

  1. motivations
  2. source of one's problems
 
 

22

What is free association?

 
 

the patient reports whatever comes to mind, while the therapist analyzes the responses and looks for themes that may reveal the subconscious