How did the Proclamation of 1763 mark a change in relations between Britain and the American colonies?
The Proclamation of 1763 marked the end of the period of salutary neglect, and marked the first time the British directly interfered with colonial affairs.
Further British interference would come in the form of taxation, as the British government sought to have the American colonies pay for some of the costs of the French and Indian War.
In 1766, the British government passed the _____ _____, which established new taxes on paper, tea, and glass, suspended New York's colonial government, and gave British customs officials the power to issue writs of assistance.
The Acts were named for Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who was responsible for raising revenue for the British government.
What is the difference between direct and indirect taxation?
Direct taxation is a payment directly to the government by the persons upon whom it is imposed. The Stamp Act was an example of direct taxation.
Indirect taxation is a tax collected by an intermediate party. The Townshend Act's taxes on tea, glass, and paper were an indirect tax, because the taxes were not paid directly to the British government.
Direct taxes were strongly opposed by the colonists as impermissible under the principle of "no taxation without representation."
How did the United States acquire Florida in 1819?
With American troops already in Florida (Andrew Jackson had captured Pensacola in 1818), the Spanish government recognized that the United States would likely conquer Florida and agreed to sell it to the United States, as well as give up its rights to the Oregon Territory.
For payment the U.S. government assumed $5 million in claims against Spain and also abandoned any claim to Spanish Texas based upon the Louisiana Purchase.
Why did Congress pass the Tariff of 1816?
Concerned that goods from newly peaceful Britain would flood the U.S. market, Congress passed a high tariff in 1816 to protect American manufacturers. It was the first protectionist tariff.
Although passed by Democratic-Republicans, the Tariff of 1816 was similar to one proposed by Hamilton decades before.
Who proposed the Missouri Compromise?
The Missouri Compromise preserved the balance of power in the Senate, ensuring that for each free state admitted to the Union, a slave state would also be admitted.
Portions of the Missouri Compromise would be repealed by the Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854, which allowed new states to vote on whether or not they wanted to allow slavery, and others would be struck down in the Scott v. Sandford decision.
What did Andrew Jackson's supporters consider the "Corrupt Bargain"?
In 1824, the House of Representatives was under the control of Henry Clay (who also finished fourth in the Electoral College that year). Although Andrew Jackson had won the popular vote, Clay's efforts convinced the House to vote for John Quincy Adams as President.
Upon his election, Adams promptly nominated Clay as Secretary of State (considered a stepping stone to the Presidency). Outraged Jacksonians saw a conspiracy afoot, and denounced what they considered a "corrupt bargain."
What two major points did Lincoln make in his Inaugural Address?
First, in an attempt to mollify the South, Lincoln vowed not to interfere with slavery where it currently existed. Second, Lincoln stated unequivocally that Northern forces would not fire the first shot.
"In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine is the momentous issue of Civil War. The government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors."
At the outset of the Civil War, Lincoln took three acts which were an unprecedented use of Presidential executive powers. What were they?
Congress was not in session, and Lincoln, using his executive powers, acted without its approval to:
- Suspend the writ of habeus corpus, allowing for the indefinite detention of those suspected of actions against the government
- Call upon the governors for 75,000 militia troops to serve for three months
- Authorize spending for military purposes
The South possessed two major military advantages during the Civil War. What were they?
The South's two major military advantages were:
- Interior lines: the South would be fighting a defensive war, allowing it to move troops to affected areas and offset in part the Union advantage in manpower
- Able commanders: the South had a distinct military tradition, and many of the Confederacy's senior commanders had significant military experience
Robert E. Lee was so highly regarded at the outset of the War that Lincoln offered him field command of the Union troops.
crop lien system
During Reconstruction, many Southern farmers were strapped for cash. Under the crop lien system, farm workers estimated the value of their forthcoming crops, and borrowed against it.
Sample crop liens proved dangerous to farmers, as the failure of a crop would result in foreclosure of the farm and dispossession of the farmer.
Who was Booker T. Washington?
Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) founded the Tuskegee Institute, a vocational school for blacks in Alabama. The Tuskegee Institute taught skilled trades, preached the value of hard work, and contended that black empowerment would come through employment and self-advancement.
In 1883, the Supreme Court heard a number of cases collectively known as the Civil Rights Cases. What did the Court hold?
In the Civil Rights Cases, the Court held that Congress could not outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals. The Court reasoned that the Fourteenth Amendment only applied to state acts, but not to the acts of private individuals.
These cases put an end to the efforts of Radical Reconstructionists to ensure black equality in the South, and endemic Southern discrimination continued into the 1960s.
In 1939, Franklin Roosevelt persuaded Congress to adopt "Cash and Carry." What did this policy allow?
Cash and Carry allowed countries engaged in war to purchase arms and ammunition in the United States, provided they carried it back to their country aboard their own ships.
While the Cash and Carry system was ostensibly neutral, it favored Great Britain, who retained control of the seas.
In 1940, the Selective Service Act established the third draft in U.S. history. Why was this draft different than the drafts which took place during the Civil War and World War I?
Unlike previous drafts, the Selective Service Act was passed during peacetime. Although the Act alarmed isolationists, they were convinced by the Roosevelt Administration's contention that the Army's growth was necessary to protect the Western Hemisphere.
What group was formed in 1940 to support isolation and mobilize American public opinion against involvement in WWII?
The America First Committee
The America First Committee had some 880,000 members at its peak but shut down after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
During his Inaugural Address, Kennedy said "Let the word go forth ... that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans." What did Kennedy mean?
Kennedy represented a new generation of leadership that had come of age during the Second World War. Kennedy viewed the future with optimism, and called for a New Frontier, with greater civil rights, healthcare reforms, and urban renewal.
Kennedy also promised that the United States would put a man on the moon by the end of the 60s.
What was the Bay of Pigs Invasion?
In April 1961, Cuban dissidents, funded by the CIA, invaded Cuba in an operation approved by President Kennedy. The attack was a miserable failure, embarrassing President Kennedy.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his 1963 "I Have a Dream" speech during what event?
The March on Washington
Some 200,000 Americans converged on Washington, ostensibly in support of a civil rights bill pending in Congress, but also with a larger purpose in mind -- raising both civil rights and economic issues to national attention.
The Civil Rights Bill of 1964, supported by President Kennedy before his death, was passed partly in response to the March.
Which cabinet-level agency did President Johnson sign into law in 1965, to develop and execute policies on housing?
Housing and Urban Development (HUD), originally known as the House and Home Financing Agency.
HUD was responsible for building and administering government housing as part of President Johnson's War on Poverty.