What are the two mechanism of recovery from aphasia's?
Contralateral transfer - mainly in younger people
Is language the same as speech?
No, language can be produced through a number of mode eg writing
How do the left and right hippocampi vary in memory?
Left: verbal memory,
- list recall, story recall, paired associated learning
Right: Non-verbal memory
- visuo-spatial associations
- facial recall
What is an episodic cause of aphasia?
What is supplied by the superior branch of the MCA?
Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
What is an insidious onset-progressive cause of aphasia?
What is a transcortical motor aphasia?
Mutenesss at most severe
Repetition is preversed
What is semantic memory?
eg the meaning of a word or a historical date
What type of aphasia is associated with AD?
What is a common associated feature of Broca's aphasia?
Right arm and face weakness
Sensory loss in the same region
What percentage of dementia is caused by Alzheimer's disease?
How does hippocampal sclerosis present?
Declarative memory disturbance
What is supplied by the inferior division of the MCA?
Knocking out the mamillary bodies can do what to memory?
Cause dense amnesia with poor prognosis
What are three important regions for declarative memory?
What is a conduction aphasia characterised by?
Relatively intact comprehension
Poor repetition of words
What is episodic memory?
Memory of a time and a place that include your emotional tone
T/F Retrograde amnesia commonly accompanies andrograde amnesia
What is transient global amnesia characterised by?
Precipitating events including - sexual intercourse, immersion in cold water
No disruption of self-identity
What is the function of the arcuate fasciculus?
Connects Broca's and Wernicke's areas
Are skills declarative or non-declarative information?
What is mild cognitive impairment?
Subclinical transition phase between normal ageing and dementia
Self complaint for 6-12 months
What is aphasia?
A disturbance in language as a result of brain damage
What is an acute cause of aphasia
Penetrating head injury
Define procedural memories
What is overload syndrome?
Thinking your memory is poor when really it's due to having to learn a lot of information
How does Alzheimer's develop on a pathological level?
Pathology spread throughouts the brain
Limbic system (incipient)
Neocortical associated cortex (fully developed AD)
Where are lesions that cause Broca's aphasia located?
Anterior: pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus
What is working memory?
The ability to hold a piece of information and manipulate it over a short period of time
What happens with memory in the hippocampus?
Memories are consolidated
What is the difference between production and selection in speech?
Production is producing appropriate output sequences where selection is choosing appropriate content
What is non-declarative memory?
Unconscious precedural memories
Does declarative or non-declarative memory more often break down?
Describe language in Wernicke's aphasia
Fluent with: Neologisms - made up words repeated for certain
Paraphasic errors eg boap or boat
Who is HM?
Famous case of a guy who had bilateral medial temporal lobe resection causing severe antrograde amnesia
What are some causes of memory impairment?
What type of aphasia is broca's?
Loss of grammatical (sequential) structure
Intact selection of content
Which hemisphere is most commonly speech?
Where are the lesions that cause Wernicke's aphasia located?
posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus