Aphasia and Memory Disorders Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Neuro > Aphasia and Memory Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aphasia and Memory Disorders Deck (39):
1

What are the two mechanism of recovery from aphasia's?

Contralateral transfer - mainly in younger people

Ipsilateral re-organisation 

2

Is language the same as speech?

No, language can be produced through a number of mode eg writing

2

How do the left and right hippocampi vary in memory?

Generally

Left: verbal memory,

- list recall, story recall, paired associated learning

 

Right: Non-verbal memory

- visuo-spatial associations

- facial recall

3

What is an episodic cause of aphasia?

Migraine

3

What is supplied by the superior branch of the MCA?

Sensorimotor cortex

Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

4

What is an insidious onset-progressive cause of aphasia?

Dementia

4

What is a transcortical motor aphasia?

Non-fluent aphasia

Mutenesss at most severe

Repetition is preversed

4

What is semantic memory?

General facts

Shared knowledge

eg the meaning of a word or a historical date

4

What type of aphasia is associated with AD?

Fluent

6

What is a common associated feature of Broca's aphasia?

Right arm and face weakness

Sensory loss in the same region

7

What percentage of dementia is caused by Alzheimer's disease?

50%

8

How does hippocampal sclerosis present?

Declarative memory disturbance

10

What is supplied by the inferior division of the MCA?

Temporoparietal cortex

Visual tracts

11

Knocking out the mamillary bodies can do what to memory?

Cause dense amnesia with poor prognosis

12

What are three important regions for declarative memory?

Hippocampus

Entorhinal cortex

Perirhinal cortex

14

What is a conduction aphasia characterised by?

Fluent aphasia

Relatively intact comprehension

Poor repetition of words

14

What is episodic memory?

Memory of a time and a place that include your emotional tone

16

T/F Retrograde amnesia commonly accompanies andrograde amnesia

True

17

What is transient global amnesia characterised by?

Precipitating events including - sexual intercourse, immersion in cold water

Anterograde amnesia

No disruption of self-identity

 

19

What is the function of the arcuate fasciculus?

Connects Broca's and Wernicke's areas

20

Are skills declarative or non-declarative information?

Non-declarative

21

What is mild cognitive impairment?

Subclinical transition phase between normal ageing and dementia

Self complaint for 6-12 months

22

What is aphasia?

A disturbance in language as a result of brain damage

23

What is an acute cause of aphasia

Stroke

Penetrating head injury

24

Define procedural memories

Slowly acquired

Long term

Implicit

25

What is overload syndrome?

Thinking your memory is poor when really it's due to having to learn a lot of information

26

How does Alzheimer's develop on a pathological level?

Pathology spread throughouts the brain

Transenterorhinal (asymptomatic)

Limbic system (incipient)

Neocortical associated cortex (fully developed AD)

27

Where are lesions that cause Broca's aphasia located?

Anterior: pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus

28

What is working memory?

The ability to hold a piece of information and manipulate it over a short period of time

29

What happens with memory in the hippocampus?

Memories are consolidated

30

What is the difference between production and selection in speech?

Production is producing appropriate output sequences where selection is choosing appropriate content

32

What is non-declarative memory?

Unconscious precedural memories

33

Does declarative or non-declarative memory more often break down?

Declarative

34

Describe language in Wernicke's aphasia

Fluent with: Neologisms - made up words repeated for certain 

Paraphasic errors eg boap or boat

Impaired comprehension

 

35

Who is HM?

Famous case of a guy who had bilateral medial temporal lobe resection causing severe antrograde amnesia

36

What are some causes of memory impairment?

Neurodegenerative diseases

Cerebrovascular diseases

Transient disorders

Surgical resection

37

What type of aphasia is broca's?

Non-fluent aphasia

Loss of grammatical (sequential) structure

Intact selection of content

38

Which hemisphere is most commonly speech?

Left

39

Where are the lesions that cause Wernicke's aphasia located?

Posterior:

posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus