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1

the study of the principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement

kinesiology

2

activities of daily living

ADL

3

muscular balance

the symmetry of the interconnected components of muscle and connective tissue

4

the mechanics of biological and muscular activity

biomechanics

5

the study of the form, pattern, or sequence of movement without regard for the forces that may produce that motion

kinematics

6

the branch of mechanics that describes the effects of forces on the body

kinetics

7

Newton's theory stating that every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force that is proportional to the product of the masses of the two objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

law of gravity

8

Newton's first law of motion stating that a body at rest will stay at rest and a body in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an external force

law of inertia

9

Newton's second law of motion stating that the force acting on a body in a given direction is equal to the body's mass times its acceleration in that direction

law of acceleration

10

Newton's third law of motion stating that for every applied force there is an equal and opposite reactive force

law of reaction

11

an external force acting on a system (body or body segment)

applied force

12

high intensity movement, such as jumping, involving high-force loading of body weight during the landing phase of the movement

plyometrics

13

the imaginary line or point about which an object rotates

axis of rotation

14

standing erect with the feet and palms facing forward

anatomical position

15

the force that starts or causes a movement

motive force

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a force that resists the motion of another external force

resistive force

17

a type of isotonic muscle contraction in which the muscle develops tension and shortens when stimulated

concentric

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a type of isotonic muscle contraction in which the muscle lengthens against a resistance when it is stimulated

sometimes called negative work or negative reps

eccentric

19

a type of muscular contraction in which the muscle is stimulated to generate tension but little or no joint movement occurs

isometric

20

a rigid bar that rotates around a fixed support (fulcrum) in response to an applied force

levers

21

the support on which a lever rotates when moving or lifting something

fulcrum

22

the result of a force pushing or pulling an object around an axis
often described as a twisting or rotation action

torque

23

the muscle directly responsible for observed movement

agonist (prime mover)

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the muscle that acts in opposition to the contraction produced by an agonist muscle

antagonist

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a muscle that assists another muscle in function

synergist

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the mutual coordination of antagonist muscles to maintain a position

co-contraction

27

the ability to maintain the body's position over its base of support within stability limits, both statically and dynamically

balance

28

characteristic of the body's joints of posture that represents resistance to change of position

stability

29

the number of degrees through which an articulation will allow one of its segments to move

range of motion (ROM)

30

the degree to which an articulation is allowed to move before being restricted by surrounding tissues

mobility

31

the arrangement of the body and its limbs

posture

32

the point around which all weight is evenly distributed

also called center of mass (COM)

center of gravity (COG)

33

a theoretical vertical line passing through the center of gravity, dissecting the body into two hemispheres

line of gravity

34

the areas of contact between the feet and their supporting surface and the area between the feet

base of support (BOS)

35

the attachment site of a tendon or a muscle attached to the relatively more fixed or proximal bone

origin

36

excessive anterior curvature of the spine that typically occurs at the low back (many also occur at the neck)

lordosis

37

a band of connective tissue that extends from the iliac crest to the knee and links the gluteus maximus to the tibia

iliotibial (IT) band

38

a phenomenon that increases knee joint stability by locking the femur on the tibia (or vice versa) when the knee is fully extended

screw-home mechanism

39

muscles that actively contribute to core stability

dynamic stabilizers

40

maximum distance a person can intentionally displace his or her center of gravity in a given direction without losing balance, stepping, or reaching for assistance

stability limits

41

excessive posterior curvature of the spine, typically seen in the thoracic region

kyphosis

42

excessive lateral curvature of the spine

scoliosis

43

a position of the spine that minimizes the natural curve by placing the pelvis in a slight posterior tilt

flat-back posture

44

a long outward curve of the thoracic spine with a backward shift of the trunk starting from the pelvis

sway-back posture

45

a reduction in muscle size due to inactivity or immobilization

atrophy

46

when the muscles of the trunk function in harmony to stabilize the spine and pelvis to provide a solid foundation for movement in the extremities

core stability

47

bony configuration of joint, fibrocartilages, and ligaments that contribute to core stability

static stabilizers

48

a white, flattened, tendinous expansion that mainly serves to connect a muscle to the parts it moves

aponeurosis

49

the collective internal organs of the abdominal cavity

viscera

50

the articulation of the scapula with the thorax beneath it

shoulder girdle (scapulothoracic (S/T) articulation)

51

the three segments of the shoulder

scapula
clavicle
humerus

shoulder joint complex

52

the ball and socket joint composed of the glenoid fossa of the scapula and the humeral head

glenohumeral (G/H) joint

53

the junction of the sternum and the proximal clavical

sternoclavicular (S/C) joint

54

the junction of the acromion process of the scapula with the distal clavicle

acrominoclavicular (A/C) joint

55

a biplanar movement involving the sequential combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction

circumduction

56

combined action of scapular and humeral movement

scapulohumeral rhythm

57

a pneumonic device for naming the rotator cuff muscles

supraspinatus
infraspinatus
teres minor
subscapularis

SITS

58

a relative measure of body height to body weight used to determine levels of weight, from underweight to extreme obesity

body mass index (BMI)

59

a method of physical training in which a variety of exercise and changes in body positions or modes of exercise are utilized to positively affect compliance and motivation, and also stimulate additional strength gains or reduce injury risk

cross-training

60

one's perception of his or her ability to change or perform specific behaviors

self-efficacy