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who was the first person to call themselves a psychologist and what technique did they use to study the structure of the mind?

- Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
- used introspection to study the structure of the mind
- introspection is the process of gaining knowledge about mental and emotional states
- obtained by examining or observing conscious thoughts and feelings


what is empiricism?

- belief that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience
- characterised by use of scientific method in psychology


what is the scientific method?

- use of investigative methods that are objective, systematic and reliable
- formulation, testing and modification of hypotheses based on methods


what are two learning approaches to psychology?

- behaviourist approach
- social learning theory


what do behaviourists believe?

- human behaviour is learned and explained through conditioning
- no need to consider thoughts and feelings


what is classical conditioning?

- learning through association
- neutral stimulus consistently paired with unconditioned stimulus
- eventually takes on properties of stimulus
- produces a conditioned response


who is credited with discovering the process of conditioning and how did he make the discovery?

- Ivan pavlov
- investigating salivary reflex in dogs
- notices animals salivated when food placed in mouths and when in presence of stimuli that coincided with presentation of food


what is operant conditioning?

- learning through reinforcement or punishment
- reinforcement - if behaviour is followed by desirable consequence it is more likely to occur again
- punishment - if behaviour followed by undesirable consequence it is more likely to occur in the future


who developed theory of operant conditioning and how did they do it?

- Burrhus Skinner
- developed the Skinner box
- rat moves around cage and accidentally presses a lever and food pellet falls into cage
- rat presses lever to get food
- if pellets stop rat presses leaver a few more times then gives up


what is the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement?

- positive reinforcement produces a consequence that is pleasant
- food to hungry animal
- negative reinforcement is removal of something unpleasant
- turning off an alarm


what is the difference between positive punishment and negative punishment?

- positive punishment occurs when something unpleasant is added as a result of a behaviour
- slapping a child
- negative punishment is removing something as a result of behaviour
- taking phone away from child


what is social learning theory?

- idea that learning occurs by observing others and imitating behaviours that are rewarded
- learning process quick compared to classical conditioning


who developed social learning theory and how did they do it?

- Albert Bandura
- children observed aggressive or non-aggressive models
- tested for imitative learning in absence of model
- those that observed aggressive model reproduced aggressive behaviour
- those that observed non-aggressive model showed no aggression


what is modelling?

- model must carry out behaviour to be learned for social learning to take place


what is imitation?

- some social learning from direct reinforcement
- most learning acquired through imitation of attitudes and behaviours modelled by parents and peers


what is identification?

- extent to which individual rates to model and feels they are similar
- identification with a model leads to a higher chance of adopting an attitude or behaviour


what is vicarious reinforcement?

- learning not a result of direct reinforcement or behaviour
- through observing someone else being reinforced for behaviour


what are meditational processes?

- internal mental processes required for social learning to take place
- observer needs to create mental representation of behaviour and outcomes
- attention
- retention
- motor reproduction
- motivation


what does the cognitive approach to psychology focus on?

- how people perceive, store, manipulate and interpret information
- studying mental processes such as perception, memory and reasoning


how do cognitive psychologists study mental processes?

- mental processes can't be studied directly
- studies indirectly by inferring what goes on by measuring behaviour
- logical conclusion reached on basis of evidence or reasoning


what is a schema?

- cognitive framework that helps organise and interpret information in the brain
- schemas help people make sense of new information


how do schemas develop?

- develop through experiences


what are theoretical models in cognitive psychology?

- simplified representations of a particular mental processes based on research


what are computer models in cognitive psychology?

- process of using computer analogies as a representation of human cognition


what is cognitive neuroscience?

- area of psychology dedicated to studying neural bases of cognitive functions


what is the biological approach to psychology?

- approach that views humans as biological organisms
- provides biological explanations for all aspects of psychological functioning


what is a gene?

- part of chromosome that carries information in form of DNA
- genes inherited from parents
- carry instruction that lead to certain behaviours


what is the genotype?

- genetic make-up of an individual
- collection of inherited genetic material passed from generation to generation


what is the phenotype?

- observable characteristics of an individual
- consequence of interaction of genotype with environment


what is evolution?

- over generations the genotype of a population changes
- changes caused by natural selection