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AQA: A Level Psychology Paper 2 > Approaches & Biopsychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Approaches & Biopsychology Deck (39)
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What are the main assumptions of behaviourism [3]:

- All behaviour is learnt through experience in the environment after birth
- We are all born as a blank slate (tabula rasa)
- The laws of learning are universal and apply to both non-human animals and humans


Behaviourism considers that we learn all behaviour through...[3]:

- Classical conditioning
- Operant conditioning
- Social learning theory


Social learning theory [explanation]:

We learn by observing and imitating others


Classical conditioning [explanation]:

Learning by associating one thing with another


Operant conditioning (explanations)

- Learning by the consequences of what we do
- Using consequences to encourage or discourage behaviours


Behaviourism in nature vs nurture [2]:

- Supports the nurture argument
- We learn everything through experience


Behaviourism in free will vs determinism [2]:

- Supports determinism
- We learn all behaviour from the environment so free will is an illusion


Strengths of behaviourism [4]:

- Takes a very scientific approach to studying behaviour, using experimental methods which are controlled and replicable
- many practical applications like treating some mental disorders
- It can explain many behaviours using a few simple principles
- Provides argument for nurture in nature vs nurture


Weaknesses of behaviourism [4]:

- It is reductionist, explaining behaviour only in simple learning processes and ignores mental processes
- Ignores genetic factors because of tabula rasa belief
- It discounts the qualitative differences between non- human animals and humans
- It is deterministic and disregards free will


Applications of behaviourist approach [3]:

- It has advanced understanding of many aspects of behaviour such as how we learn language or develop mental disorders
- Operant conditioning is often used to train animals
- Can be used for treating mental disorders


Aversion therapy [4]:

- Based on classical conditioning
- The person is presented with aversive (unpleasant) stimuli when they do a particular undesireable behaviour
- The person learns that something horrible happens at the same time as the behaviour
- It only targets symptoms and not causes


Systematic desensitisation [4]:

- Based on classical conditioning
- Replaces maladaptive behaviour ith adaptive behaviours
- The person is introduced to the fear provoking stimulus gradually in a hierarchy of stages, while using the new response
- It's an ethical treatment as the patient has control over moving through the stages


Adaptive [definition]:

Behaviour that helps a person or animal to function and survive in its experiment


Maladaptive [definition]:

Behaviour hich does not help a person or animal to function and survive its environment


The law of reinforcement:

A positive reinforcement/reward increases the chanc eof learning behaviour


The law of continuity:

The behaviour and consequence must happen close enough together in time for learning to occur


Operant conditioning reinforcements and punishments [4]:

- Positive reinforcement
- Negative reinforcement
- Positive punishment
- Negative punishment


Positive reinforcement [2]:

- When a behaviour produces a consequence which is satisfying and/or pleasant.
-The reinforced behaviour is more likely to be repeated


Negative reinforcement [2]:

- When a behaviour removes something aversive (unpleasant).
- The reinforced behaviour is more likely to be repeated


Positive reinforcement [3]:

- When a behaviour is followed by an unpleasant consequence
- The punishment is 'added' to the situation and would not have happened without the behaviour
- The behaviour is less likely to be repeated


Negative reinforcement [3]:

- When a behaviour is followed by an unpleasant consequence
- This punishment takes away something pleasant
- The behaviour is less likely to be repeated


Unconditioned stimulus (UCS):

Something which naturally/ automatically causes a repsonse


Unconditioned response (UCR):

A natural reaction to a stimulus


Neutral stimulus (NS):

A stimulus that initially does not cause the target reaction or response


Conditioned stimulus (CS):

When the neutral stimulus causes the same response as the unconditioned stimulus on its own because they have become paired


Introspection [definition]:

A person gaining knowledge about they're mental states by examining their conscious thoughts and feelings


Behaviourist [definition]:

Someone who believes all behaviours are learned


What are the meditational processes? [4]:

- Retention
- Reproduction
- Attention
- Motivation


Scientific methods are...[3];

- Objective
- systematic
- Replicable


Wundt's role in the development of psychology [4]:

- He was 'the father of psychology'
- Set up the first psychology lab
- Promoted the use of introspection as a way of studying mental processes
- His work paved the way for controlled research and the study of mental processes (Cognitive)