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Flashcards in Approaches in Psychology Deck (70):
1

Wundt

- First psychologist
- Seperated psychology from philosophy
- Established first labratory

2

Structuralism

Studying the structre of the mind

3

Introspection

- Gaining knowledge about your own mental state
- Wundt thought training in intospection could result in systematically testing the mind

4

Perception Research

- Displayed visual, auditory stimuli
- Asked to provide details
- Participants responses were similar

5

Psychology as a science

- 19th centuary

- All behviour is casual and predicable

6

Empirism

Scientifc method

objective
systematic
Replicable

7

Classical Conditioning

Learning through accociation

8

Ivan Pavlov 1927

Aim: investigating salivary reflexes, dogs not only salivated at food but objects in relation to their food

Procedure: Rang bell everytime food was given to dog, took away food and rang bell

Findings: Dog salivated in presence of bell

9

Unconditioned response

Reflex that isnt learned but imbedded

10

Conditioned Response

A response learned that would not happen naturally

11

Unconditioned Respsonse

A normal response that isnt learned

12

Neutral Stimuli

A stimulus that gives no response

13

Conditioned stimuli

A stimulus that gives a response that it normally wouldnt

14

Operant conditing

Learning through consequence

15

Skinner

Aim: To investigate that different behaviour is a result of different consequences

Procedure: Skinners box, a box with a lever, rat moves around a cage, knocks lever and treat are released.
Or
Skinners box, rat moves around the cage, gets shocked, accidentally knocks lever to make it stop

Findings: rats learned because of consequence

16

Reinforcement

A change that strengthens of weakens behaviour

17

Positive reinforcement

Reward that strengthens behaviour

18

Negative reinforcement

Removing something pleasent to make the organism want it again strenghthens behaviour

19

Punishment

Unpleasentness that weakens behaviour

20

Social Learning Theory

Behaviour is not only aquired through own experience but by observing others

21

Modelling

An indvidual is obsered if charecteristics are desirable then they are imitated

22

Identification

Indvidual relates to model

23

Imitation

Indvidual acts like model

24

Vicarious Reinforcement

Indvidual observe models consequences of actions and decide the likelihood of experiencing themselves

25

Role of the meditational process

Mental representations of yourself being your model as your mind sees yourself in that position

26

Bandura 1963

Aim: To investigate model influence

Procedure: Child with agressive or non agressive models left in room with bobo doll

Findings: children with agressive models were agressive to the doll

27

Strengths of operant and classical

- Empirical methods
- Casual relationships
-Treatment of phobias

28

Weaknesses of operant and classical

- Animal research are not humans
- Does not work if there is little connection to the unconditioned stimuli

29

Strengths of SLT

- Valid case studies
- Apllications to campaigns (model identfication)

30

Weaknesses of SLT

- Problems with causality
- Lacks complexity

31

Cognitive Approach

Behaviour is caused by how we process, encode and retrieve information

32

Schema

A mental framework that helps us organise and retrieve information

33

Why are schemas useful?

Help us fill in the blanks

34

An event schema

Script

35

A person schema

stereotype

36

Cognitive neurosceince

Biological cognitive cross over

PET and fMRI scans

allows us to see brain processes

37

Cognitive Models

Use arrows and boxes to display mental processes

38

Ads of cognitive approach

- Application in social psychology and psychopathy

- Assumptions are based on science

39

Disads of cogntive approach

- Computer model of human mind is bad as it lacks complexity

- Approach ignored motivation and emotion

- Does not show why we process information

- Lacks ecological validity

40

Biological Approach

behaviour is explained through biological causes

41

Genes

Hereditary charecteristics psychological and physical

42

genotype

Genetic DNA code

43

Phenotype

Physical charcteristics of a gene

44

Neurons and the nervous system

Brain and spinal cord CNS

somatic and autonomic nerves PNS

45

The brain

Two halfs each divided into four lobes that are reponsible for functioning

46

Neuro Chem

Nerve impulse reaches end of neurone

crosses synapse

neurotransmitter is released

this chemical is associated with changing behaviour

47

Hormones

Chemicals produced by glads that target organs/cells

Causes a psychological reaction in cell

48

Evolution

Change over time

natural selection

49

Ads of Bio approach

- scientific methods

- Application in drug treatment (neurochem inbalances)

50

Limitations of bio approach

- Reductionist (suggests one cause for everything)

- Problems in explaining evolution

- Behaviour could be to do with cultural reasons

51

Psychodynamic approach

Behaviour is drive mechanisms in the unconcious mind to develop desires and motives in the future

52

Sigmund Freud

Main psychologist

Believed behaviour was psychological than bio

53

Role of the unconcious

Concious self is the tip - thinking

preconscious is just underwater - memories

unconscious is dark depths - traumatic memories, anxiety provoking thoughts

unconcious is unaccesable

54

Defense mechanims

Operate unconciously to protect the mind from triggering thoughts

55

Repression

Blocking unacceptable thoughts

56

denial

Refusing to acknowledge reality

57

Displacement

Redirecting feelings onto something else

58

Structre of personality

Id: unconcious primitive drive system, gratification

Edo: defense mechanisms to balance Id and superego

supersgo: morality principle

59

Psychosexual stages of development

Oral 0-2, mouth, oral fixation

Anal 2-3, Toilet training, anal retentive or expulsive

Phallic 3-6, genital, castration anxiety, love for mother

Latent 6-12, conflict with father repressed, same sex friendships

Genital 12+, sexual desires, forming relationships

60

Ads of psychodynamic

- Objective and reliable

- Intesivly studied

61

Disads of psychodynamic

- Not much scientific evidence

- PseudoScience

- Case studies lack creditability

- free will can interpret behaviour any way

- Gender and cultral bias to western men

62

Humanistic approach

Behaviour is result of concious experience and focus on self improvement

63

Free will

Full over destiny

64

Malsow Hierachy of needs

Self actualisation
Esteem
Love
Saftey
Psychological need

65

The self

How we percive ourself

two needs:

Positive regard from others
self worth

66

Congrence

How close we are to our ideal self

67

Unconditonal positive regard

Love no matter what

68

Conditional positive regard

Love with things you must meet

69

Strengths of humanistic

- Links to economic growth

- Research support

70

Weaknesses of humanistic

-Suggests everyone wants to improve

- Does not take into account