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Flashcards in Approaches to psychology Deck (27):
1

What is introspection?

The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind breaking out conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts and images

2

What is Descartian dualism?

Rene Descartes suggestion that the mind and body are independent from each other

3

What is empiricism?

The idea that all experience can be obtained through the senses

4

What approach did empiricism later form the basis of?

Behaviour

5

Who proposed empiricism?

John Locke

6

Who developed the evolutionary theory?

Charles Darwin

7

What is the evolutionary theory?

The idea that all human and animal behaviour has changed over successive generations
The individuals with the more adaptive genes survive and reproduce

8

Which approach did the evolutionary theory lead to?

Biological approach

9

What is structuralism?

Isolating the structure of consciousness

10

Who developed introspection?

Wundt

11

What was Watson's issue with introspection?

The data was subjective and varied from person to person
Hard to establish general principles

12

What did Watson and Skinner bring into psychology?

The language and methods of new natural sciences

13

What is the behaviourist approach?

A way of explaining behaviour in terms of learning

14

What is classical conditioning?

Learning by association which occurs when two stimuli are repeated paired together

15

What is operant conditioning?

Conditioning which occurs when behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences

16

What are the three types of consequence used in operant conditioning?

Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Punishment

17

What is reinforcement?

A consequence in behaviour which determines the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated

18

What are the behaviourists interested in studying?

Behaviour which can be observed and measured

19

What is the behaviourist approach not concerned with studying?

The mental processes of the mind

20

Why do behaviourists experiment on animals?

The ways of learning are the same in all species

21

What type of conditioning did Pavlov investigate?

Classical

22

What type of conditioning did Skinner investigate?

Operant

23

What is positive reinforcement?

Receiving reward in the form of assertive behaviour

24

What is negative reinforcement?

It occurs when someone avoids something unpleasant

25

What is punishment?

An unpleasant consequence to behaviour

26

Which two consequences increase the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated?

Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement

27

Which consequence decreases the likelihood that the behaviour will be repeated?

Punishment