Flashcards in Approaches to psychology Deck (27):
What is introspection?
The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind breaking out conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts and images
What is Descartian dualism?
Rene Descartes suggestion that the mind and body are independent from each other
What is empiricism?
The idea that all experience can be obtained through the senses
What approach did empiricism later form the basis of?
Who proposed empiricism?
Who developed the evolutionary theory?
What is the evolutionary theory?
The idea that all human and animal behaviour has changed over successive generations
The individuals with the more adaptive genes survive and reproduce
Which approach did the evolutionary theory lead to?
What is structuralism?
Isolating the structure of consciousness
Who developed introspection?
What was Watson's issue with introspection?
The data was subjective and varied from person to person
Hard to establish general principles
What did Watson and Skinner bring into psychology?
The language and methods of new natural sciences
What is the behaviourist approach?
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of learning
What is classical conditioning?
Learning by association which occurs when two stimuli are repeated paired together
What is operant conditioning?
Conditioning which occurs when behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences
What are the three types of consequence used in operant conditioning?
What is reinforcement?
A consequence in behaviour which determines the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated
What are the behaviourists interested in studying?
Behaviour which can be observed and measured
What is the behaviourist approach not concerned with studying?
The mental processes of the mind
Why do behaviourists experiment on animals?
The ways of learning are the same in all species
What type of conditioning did Pavlov investigate?
What type of conditioning did Skinner investigate?
What is positive reinforcement?
Receiving reward in the form of assertive behaviour
What is negative reinforcement?
It occurs when someone avoids something unpleasant
What is punishment?
An unpleasant consequence to behaviour
Which two consequences increase the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated?