Flashcards in Aquisition of skills Deck (61)
What are the 5 continuums ?
Simple - complex
self-paced - externally paced
high organisation-low organisation
What is a motor movement / movement skill ?
An action or task that has a goal and requires voluntary body movement to achieve the goal
Define simple and complex skill ?
Simple - Few decisions to be made
Complex- lots of decisions to be made
What are sub routines ?
The elements , or separate movements , that make up a particular skill
How should open / closed skills be practiced ?
closed - practiced repeatedly so skill becomes automatic
open- a variety of situations should be experienced so performer can create a number of strategies
how discreet skills , serial skills and continuous skills should be taught ?
discrete- taught as a whole rather than splitting up into sub routines
serial - breaking down into sub routines, each sub routine can then be learned fully before the skill is practised as a whole
continuous - practised as a whole so that the kinaesthetic sense of movement can be retained and performer can feel the nature of the skill
What is the whole method ?
The performer is going to execute the skill fluently and can appreciate the movement of the skill
if the skill is rapid than the whole method is perfect for it because components interact closely one another eg golf swing
Part method ?
splitting the skill into sub routines
if the skill is complex it is perfect to split the skill into parts
Performer can gain confidence through this method
Whole part whole ?
First attempts the skill then breaks the skill down into sub routines and then putting it back together
suited to serial skills and low organisation skills , sub routines have distinct features eg triple jump
used by coaches to identify strengths and weaknesses
progressive part method ?
A serial skill is broken down into sub routines an can be linked in chains
The performer learns one link and then a second link then the links are practised again
Massed and distributed practice
Massed - involves very short / no rest intervals within the practice session. It is also continuous practice method.
Distributed - Practice involves long rests between trials , tasks that involve unrelated to main practice / not involve negative transfer
Fixe practice ?
Involves a stable and predictable environment with practice conditions remaining unchanged or fixed.
Suitable for closed skills
Fixed practice enables habitual movements
Varied practice ?
Range of experiences
Stored in long term memory
Closed skill - Conditions resemble ' true life ' situations
open skill - different from the last , involves many different situations
Gross and fine skills related to practice ?
Gross - Include building of strength and repetition ot build muscle and consistent memory trace and to ensure autonomy of movement
Fine - Repetitive training , metal rehearsal ,
Open and closed skills related to practice ?
Open skill - variety of situations so create a number of strategies to cope with change also knowledge of perceptual knowledge to take in the correct amount of knowledge / no attentional wastage
closed skill - Repeatedly practiced so skill becomes automatic
Discrete , serial , continuous skills related to practice ?
Discrete - Taught as a whole
Serial - To split into components or sub routines 9 whole - part - whole method )
Continuous - Effectively practised as a whole so that kinaesthetic sense of movement can be retained and the performer can feel the ' true nature ' of the skill
Self paced and externally paced skills related to practice ?
self paced - fixed practices that involve more control for the performer to develop habitual responses
Externally paced - involve more varied movements to help the performer build strategies for a changing movement
Simple , complex skill related to practice ?
Simple skills - Repetitive an fixed skills
Complex - Broken down into sub routines
High organisation and low related to practice ?
High - often a continuous skill practice whole
Proactive transfer ?
The influence of one skill on a skill yet to be performed
Retroactive transfer ?
The influence of one skill on the learning or performance of a skill that has previously been learned
Positive transfer ?
When the learning and performance of one skill helps the learning and performance of another skill
Negative transfer ?
When the learning and performance f one skill hinders the other
Bilateral transfer ?
The transfer of learning from one limb to another
Two ways of bilateral transfer ?
Cognitive - our understanding of what is required eg football player understands how the non preferred limb might operate
motor programme - the pattern of movement that is learned almost automatically for one limb is used subconsciously
A group of theories related to connecting stimulus and response
The process that increases the probability of a behaviour occurring
Strengthening S-R bonds
Positive reinforcement ?
The stimulus is given when the desired response occurs
Negative reinforcement ?
The stimulus is withdrawn when the desired response occurs
Giving a stimulus to prevent a response occurring , not to be confused with negative
Operant conditioning ?
Work through manipulation
Box full of rats , hit lever inside the box they get food pellet
Through trials and error , shaped and then reinforced
Negatives an positives of operant conditioning ?
Learns faster through an reward on every occasion ( complete reinforcement )
Teaching motor skills
Can be an end in its self
enjoyment of activity can be lost
Thorndike's law ?
Based on strengthening S-R Bonds
Law of exercise - Repeating or rehearsing the S-R connections to strengthen them.
Law of effect - if the response is followed by a ' satisfier ' then the stimulus- response is strengthened. If the response is followed by an annoyer , then the stimulus response is weakened
Law of readiness - The performer must be physically and mentally able to complete the task effectively
Intervening variables ?
Mental process occurring between stimulus being received and the response
Insight learning ?
Problem solving involving memory , previous experiences are used to help solve new problems
Cognitive learning theories
Go beyond the associative or S-R theories
Concerned with thinking and understanding rather than connecting certain stimuli to certain responses
Monkeys in the box
Lead to support whole practice
Learn from previous experiences eg
Taking environment into consideration
Social learning / observational learning theory ?
A perspective on personality theory that suggests personality and associated behaviour are determined by the situation or social environment rather than a series of traits or biological pre - determinants
Shows are personality are created through a process of observing others and imitating their behaviour , especially if social reinforcement is present
The process of observational learning ?
Attention - To be able to imitate a demonstration , the performer must pay a attention to the demonstration and focus on important cues. The amount of attention paid will be influenced by the perceived attractiveness of the model
Retention - The observer must be able to remember the model that is presented. Therefore , he or she needs to create a mental picture of the process. Mental rehearsal can improve retention of this mental image
Motor reproduction - The observer must be physically able to imitate the skill being observed. Demonstrations should therefore be matched to the capabilities of the observer. Feedback during future practices are important If reproduction is eventually leading to match model
motivation - The level of motivation of the observer is crucial if they are going to imitate the performance. External reinforcement of the model will increase the motivation to imitate it
3 Stages of learning ?
The cognitive stage
The associative stage
cognitive stage ?
When the performer understands what needs to be done
Trial and error
beginner trying different moves
success or failure
learn from failure and success
Associative stage ?
The performer practices , and compares or associates the movements produced with the mental image.
Feedback occurs and the learner gradually becomes more aware of increasingly subtle and complex cues
Movements are becoming almost automatic , with very little thought
The skill is found by the performer through long term memory
Must go back to associative stage to reinforce motor programmesm
Types of guidance ?
Mechanical / manual
Define verbal guidance ?
Verbal guidance used to describe a certain skill being performed. The coach / manger describes the action an explains the motions involved
Positives and negatives of verbal Guidance ?
It can be a form of feedback , which can be used to reinforce good movements and to identify errors that might then be corrected
Hold the attention of the performer
Can lead to info overload
Can be inaccurate and performer may not develop skills
Define visual guidance ?
When the performer physically watches the skill being performed to learn the motion and action
Positives and negatives of visual guidance ?
pos- Find it easy to create a mental image
Enable the skill to be seen in different stages to make it easier to learn
Encourages observational learning
The demonstration could be incorrect and therefore may learn bad habits
May not be able to show an accurate demonstration
Visual representation may not be clear
Define manual / mechanical guidance ?
Physical support for the performer by another person or a mechanical device
The response of the performer being directed physically by another person
Positives and negatives of manual guidance ?
It can give the performer a greater sense of safety and help with their confidence
Can be used to isolate a certain skill
false sense of Kinaesthesis
Intrinsic feedback ?
A type of continuous feedback that comes from the proprioceptors - nerve receptors in the muscles, ligaments and joints that pick up movement information
Advantages of intrinsic feedback ?
This feedback occurs as the movement is performed , and is therefore readily available and movements can often be corrected or altered immediately. The performer does not have to rely on others
Can improve performance
Disadvantage of intrinsic feedback ?
May not lead to accurate interpretation if the performer is in the cognitive stage or is unable to interpret the information
Can effect the performance and may deteriorate
Extrinsic feedback ?
Feedback that comes from external sources
Advantages of extrinsic feedback ?
The coach can give coaching points that may lead to improvements , as long as the information is accurate and relevant
Disadvantages of extrinsic feedback ?
Can affect the performance of the athlete if not explained properly
or if the information is unreliable the motivation will decrease
Positive feedback ?
Reinforces skill learning an gives information about a successful movement
Positives and negatives of positive feedback ?
pros - Positive reinforcement and strengthen S-R bonds
Negs- If undeserved the performer may build inappropriate S-R bonds
Negative feedback ?
Information about an unsuccessful movement , which can be used to improve strategy
Positives and negatives of negative feedback ?
Pros - some are motivated by negative feedback , clear about certain aspects of the skill or movement
Negs- can demotivate the performer and create inappropriate S-R bonds
Knowledge of performance ?
This is the feedback about the pattern of movement that has taken , or is taking place. It is normally associated with external feedback but can be gained through Kinaesthetic sense