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Flashcards in Aquisition of skills Deck (61)
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What are the 5 continuums ?

Simple - complex
self-paced - externally paced
high organisation-low organisation


What is a motor movement / movement skill ?

An action or task that has a goal and requires voluntary body movement to achieve the goal


Define simple and complex skill ?

Simple - Few decisions to be made
Complex- lots of decisions to be made


What are sub routines ?

The elements , or separate movements , that make up a particular skill


How should open / closed skills be practiced ?

closed - practiced repeatedly so skill becomes automatic

open- a variety of situations should be experienced so performer can create a number of strategies


how discreet skills , serial skills and continuous skills should be taught ?

discrete- taught as a whole rather than splitting up into sub routines

serial - breaking down into sub routines, each sub routine can then be learned fully before the skill is practised as a whole

continuous - practised as a whole so that the kinaesthetic sense of movement can be retained and performer can feel the nature of the skill


What is the whole method ?

The performer is going to execute the skill fluently and can appreciate the movement of the skill

if the skill is rapid than the whole method is perfect for it because components interact closely one another eg golf swing


Part method ?

splitting the skill into sub routines

if the skill is complex it is perfect to split the skill into parts

Performer can gain confidence through this method


Whole part whole ?

First attempts the skill then breaks the skill down into sub routines and then putting it back together

suited to serial skills and low organisation skills , sub routines have distinct features eg triple jump

used by coaches to identify strengths and weaknesses


progressive part method ?

A serial skill is broken down into sub routines an can be linked in chains

The performer learns one link and then a second link then the links are practised again


Massed and distributed practice

Massed - involves very short / no rest intervals within the practice session. It is also continuous practice method.

Distributed - Practice involves long rests between trials , tasks that involve unrelated to main practice / not involve negative transfer


Fixe practice ?

Involves a stable and predictable environment with practice conditions remaining unchanged or fixed.

Suitable for closed skills

Fixed practice enables habitual movements


Varied practice ?

Range of experiences

Stored in long term memory
Closed skill - Conditions resemble ' true life ' situations

open skill - different from the last , involves many different situations


Gross and fine skills related to practice ?

Gross - Include building of strength and repetition ot build muscle and consistent memory trace and to ensure autonomy of movement

Fine - Repetitive training , metal rehearsal ,


Open and closed skills related to practice ?

Open skill - variety of situations so create a number of strategies to cope with change also knowledge of perceptual knowledge to take in the correct amount of knowledge / no attentional wastage

closed skill - Repeatedly practiced so skill becomes automatic


Discrete , serial , continuous skills related to practice ?

Discrete - Taught as a whole

Serial - To split into components or sub routines 9 whole - part - whole method )

Continuous - Effectively practised as a whole so that kinaesthetic sense of movement can be retained and the performer can feel the ' true nature ' of the skill


Self paced and externally paced skills related to practice ?

self paced - fixed practices that involve more control for the performer to develop habitual responses

Externally paced - involve more varied movements to help the performer build strategies for a changing movement


Simple , complex skill related to practice ?

Simple skills - Repetitive an fixed skills

Complex - Broken down into sub routines


High organisation and low related to practice ?

High - often a continuous skill practice whole


Proactive transfer ?

The influence of one skill on a skill yet to be performed


Retroactive transfer ?

The influence of one skill on the learning or performance of a skill that has previously been learned


Positive transfer ?

When the learning and performance of one skill helps the learning and performance of another skill


Negative transfer ?

When the learning and performance f one skill hinders the other


Bilateral transfer ?

The transfer of learning from one limb to another


Two ways of bilateral transfer ?

Cognitive - our understanding of what is required eg football player understands how the non preferred limb might operate

motor programme - the pattern of movement that is learned almost automatically for one limb is used subconsciously


Associationist ?

A group of theories related to connecting stimulus and response


Reinforcement ?

The process that increases the probability of a behaviour occurring

Strengthening S-R bonds


Positive reinforcement ?

The stimulus is given when the desired response occurs


Negative reinforcement ?

The stimulus is withdrawn when the desired response occurs


Punishment ?

Giving a stimulus to prevent a response occurring , not to be confused with negative


Operant conditioning ?


Work through manipulation

Box full of rats , hit lever inside the box they get food pellet

Through trials and error , shaped and then reinforced


Negatives an positives of operant conditioning ?

Learns faster through an reward on every occasion ( complete reinforcement )
Teaching motor skills

Can be an end in its self
enjoyment of activity can be lost


Thorndike's law ?

Based on strengthening S-R Bonds

Law of exercise - Repeating or rehearsing the S-R connections to strengthen them.

Law of effect - if the response is followed by a ' satisfier ' then the stimulus- response is strengthened. If the response is followed by an annoyer , then the stimulus response is weakened

Law of readiness - The performer must be physically and mentally able to complete the task effectively


Intervening variables ?

Mental process occurring between stimulus being received and the response


Insight learning ?

Problem solving involving memory , previous experiences are used to help solve new problems


Cognitive learning theories

Go beyond the associative or S-R theories

Concerned with thinking and understanding rather than connecting certain stimuli to certain responses

Monkeys in the box

Lead to support whole practice

Learn from previous experiences eg

Taking environment into consideration


Social learning / observational learning theory ?

A perspective on personality theory that suggests personality and associated behaviour are determined by the situation or social environment rather than a series of traits or biological pre - determinants

Shows are personality are created through a process of observing others and imitating their behaviour , especially if social reinforcement is present


The process of observational learning ?

Attention - To be able to imitate a demonstration , the performer must pay a attention to the demonstration and focus on important cues. The amount of attention paid will be influenced by the perceived attractiveness of the model

Retention - The observer must be able to remember the model that is presented. Therefore , he or she needs to create a mental picture of the process. Mental rehearsal can improve retention of this mental image

Motor reproduction - The observer must be physically able to imitate the skill being observed. Demonstrations should therefore be matched to the capabilities of the observer. Feedback during future practices are important If reproduction is eventually leading to match model

motivation - The level of motivation of the observer is crucial if they are going to imitate the performance. External reinforcement of the model will increase the motivation to imitate it


3 Stages of learning ?

The cognitive stage

The associative stage

Autonomous stage


cognitive stage ?

When the performer understands what needs to be done

Trial and error

beginner trying different moves

success or failure

learn from failure and success


Associative stage ?

The performer practices , and compares or associates the movements produced with the mental image.

Feedback occurs and the learner gradually becomes more aware of increasingly subtle and complex cues


Autonomous stage

Movements are becoming almost automatic , with very little thought

The skill is found by the performer through long term memory

Must go back to associative stage to reinforce motor programmesm


Types of guidance ?


Mechanical / manual

Visual guidance


Define verbal guidance ?

Verbal guidance used to describe a certain skill being performed. The coach / manger describes the action an explains the motions involved


Positives and negatives of verbal Guidance ?

It can be a form of feedback , which can be used to reinforce good movements and to identify errors that might then be corrected

Hold the attention of the performer

negs -

Can lead to info overload

Can be inaccurate and performer may not develop skills


Define visual guidance ?

When the performer physically watches the skill being performed to learn the motion and action


Positives and negatives of visual guidance ?

pos- Find it easy to create a mental image

Enable the skill to be seen in different stages to make it easier to learn

Encourages observational learning

negs -

The demonstration could be incorrect and therefore may learn bad habits

May not be able to show an accurate demonstration

Visual representation may not be clear


Define manual / mechanical guidance ?

Physical support for the performer by another person or a mechanical device

The response of the performer being directed physically by another person


Positives and negatives of manual guidance ?

Pros -

It can give the performer a greater sense of safety and help with their confidence

Can be used to isolate a certain skill

Negs -

Over restrictive

false sense of Kinaesthesis


Intrinsic feedback ?

A type of continuous feedback that comes from the proprioceptors - nerve receptors in the muscles, ligaments and joints that pick up movement information


Advantages of intrinsic feedback ?

This feedback occurs as the movement is performed , and is therefore readily available and movements can often be corrected or altered immediately. The performer does not have to rely on others

Can improve performance


Disadvantage of intrinsic feedback ?

May not lead to accurate interpretation if the performer is in the cognitive stage or is unable to interpret the information

Can effect the performance and may deteriorate


Extrinsic feedback ?

Feedback that comes from external sources


Advantages of extrinsic feedback ?

The coach can give coaching points that may lead to improvements , as long as the information is accurate and relevant


Disadvantages of extrinsic feedback ?

Can affect the performance of the athlete if not explained properly

or if the information is unreliable the motivation will decrease


Positive feedback ?

Reinforces skill learning an gives information about a successful movement


Positives and negatives of positive feedback ?

pros - Positive reinforcement and strengthen S-R bonds

Negs- If undeserved the performer may build inappropriate S-R bonds


Negative feedback ?

Information about an unsuccessful movement , which can be used to improve strategy


Positives and negatives of negative feedback ?

Pros - some are motivated by negative feedback , clear about certain aspects of the skill or movement

Negs- can demotivate the performer and create inappropriate S-R bonds


Knowledge of performance ?

This is the feedback about the pattern of movement that has taken , or is taking place. It is normally associated with external feedback but can be gained through Kinaesthetic sense


Knowledge of results ?

This feedback is external , and can come from the performer seeing the result of their response or another person , usually a coach or a teacher. It important for the performer to know what the result was