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What period was the reign of Queen Victoria?



Early Victorian architecture borrowed mainly from what previous era?

Middle eastern and Asian influences


3) What are the common features of Gothic Revival architecture?

Multi coloured and textured walls, steeply pitched roofs and asymmetrical facades, strong vertical lines, gingerbread below gables


4) When was the first building “boom” for Victorian architecture in Ontario?

1880- industrial revolution


5) What styles of Victorian architecture are most common throughout Ontario?

Gothic revival, queen anne and Italianate


1) What are two innovations that occurred at the turn of the 20th Century to make building design more efficient?

Elevators, reinforced concrete, curtain walls


2) Why was the modern era of architecture essentially “stalled” in North America until after WWII?

-movement was rejected by the public who wanted traditional architecture for private homes


3) What form of architecture dominated the United States until after WWII?

Art Deco


4) What is meant by “functionalist” architecture and what architect is most noted for this style?

Emphasis on workplace efficiency, undecorated, functional forms, celebrate machine age, noted by Frank Lloyd Wright


5) What is the Bauhaus School of design and who established this school?

Walter Gropius founded it in 1919 in Dessau Germany. It is a state school that taught design in an integrated manner by combining fine arts, crafts, industrial design and architecture as a part of an all-encompassing discipline.


6) What was the teaching philosophy of the Bauhaus School?

Teaching philosophy derived from the belief that the artist did not have the technical skills of the architect and that the architect did not have the abstract vision of the artist. The goal was to achieve an ideal machine-age architectural language that students could specialize after their multi-disciplinary training.


7) Who are two prominent architects that taught at the Bauhaus School that went on to influence modern architecture for many years?

Le Corbusier and Mies van der rohe


8) What artistic movement had a major influence on the Bauhaus School of design?

Fordism- architecture should emulate machine age;houses should be built in the image of Henry Ford Mode T Ford
De Stijl- geometric forms, smooth bare surfaces and primary colours known as neoplasticism


1) Where did the term “International Style” originate from and who were the original architects for this movement?

Came from the 1932 exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art organized by Philip Johnson and Alfred Barr.


2) What shapes does the International Style rely on?

Geometric forms, rectilinear, asymmetrical compositions and large expanses of glazing and white walls


3) What time period did the International Style encompass in North America?

1920’s- late 1960s/early 1970s


4) What event in Europe caused the proliferation of the International Style throughout the world?

Western European architects emigrated to US in 1930s due to the rejection of modernism by the national regime


5) What happened to the International Style in the US and Canada after WWII?

Ittall skyscrapers became synonymous with capitalism and corporate America


6) How did land use policies affect the International Style in Canadian communities?

-land use regulations in formative stage; little resistance/regulation over large buildings being built


7) What role did Jane Jacobs play with respect to the International Style of architecture in Toronto?

- Initiated protests against the modern movement and its lack of human scale; initiate post modern


8) Much of the current skyline in Toronto was constructed during what period?

- 1950-1990


9) When did the International Style begin to fade out in Canadian cities?



10) What was Frank Darling’s contribution to the architecture of Toronto?

Designed the bank of Montreal in 1885 (currently hockey hall of fame)



elaborate porch decoration, decorative eaves, symmetrical facades with corner quoins and arched windows which were often paried; arches and pediments of Roman architecture were often incorporated


Second Empire

incorporates rectangular or square floor plans, tall flat facades capped by Mansard roofs with dormer windows and double entry doors, influenced by French architecture



decorative trussowrk, exposed half-timber framing, and an intermingling of verticle and horizontal lpanes. Roofs are typically steeply pitched with simply gables; common in California


Shingle Srchitecture

notable for their extensive and unusual use of newly affortable wood products; shingles were often used to cover most of the structure; influenced by American colonial


Folk Victorian

- tradition of English cottage and American homestead merged with romanticism of the era, giving rise to the style known as Folk Victorian. Often found in rural or country settings, usually constructed from local materials and blend functionality with newer stylistic ornamentation that includes colorful and fluid vengeborard


Queen anne

requently feature irregular floor plans, multiple steep roofs and porches with decorative gables, dominant octagonal or circular towers, corbelled chimneys and highly decorative windows and entry doors with glass panels


Beaux Arts

- features massive stone bearing walls, large arched windows, porches, and entries, paried columns, extensive use of sculpture and bas-relief stone work and grandlyscaled interiors reminiscent of the great palaces of Europe. Typically of large public buildings


when did the victorian era end