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Flashcards in Architectural Form Space and Order Definitions Deck (278):
1

A vestibule or gateway of architectural importance before a temple area or other enclosure, often used in the plural  is a _____________

Propylaeum

2

In ancient Greece, a piece of ground specifically set aside and enclosed as a sacred space is a __________

Temenos

3

The principal chamber or enclosed part of a classical temple, where the cult image was kept (also called naos)

The cella

4

A muslim theological school arranged around a courtyard and attached to a mosque found from the 11th century on in Egypt, Anatolia and Persia is called a ____________

Madrasah

5

A broad embankment of earth raised as a fortification around a place and usually surround by a parapet is called a __________

Rampart

6

A tendency in architecture and the decorative arts to freely mix various historical styles with the aim of combinging the virtues of diverse sources or of increasing illusive content particularly during the second half of the nineteenth century in Europe and the US is called ________

Ecclectism

7

Relation in magnetude, quantity or degree between two or more similar things is called a _________

Ratio

8

A tall ornamental structure usually ending  in a spire atop a church or other public building is a _________

Steeple

9

A narrow passageway or gallery connecting parts of  a building, especially one into which several rooms or apartments open

Corridor

10

A system of decoration in Islamic architecture formed by the intricate corbeling of brackets, squinches and inverted pyramids sometimes wrought in stone, but more often in plaster. Also called stalagtite work is called _________

Muqarnas

11

A single block of stone of considerable size often in the form of an obelisk or column is a ________

Monolith

12

An architectural feature in Spanish architecture affording a view of the surroundings as a bay window loggia or roof pavilion is a __________

Mirador

13

A Buddhist monastary or temple in Thailand or Cambodia is a ________

Wat

14

The art or technique of painting on a freshly spread, moist plaster surface with pigments ground up in water or a lime-water mixture is a _________

Fresco

15

A part of a church or a separate building in which the rite of baptism is administered is called the __________

Baptistry

16

a rigid structural member disigned to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements is called a ____

Beam

17

A prehistoric monument consisting of an upright megalith, usually standing alone, but sometimes aligned with others is a __________

Menhir

18

A column  built so as to be truely or seemingly bonded to the wall before which it stands is called an __________ ____________

Engaged column

19

The horizontal part of a classical entablature between the cornice and architrave often decorated with sculpture and low relief.  Also, a decorative band, as one along the top of an interior wall immediately below the cornice or a sculptured one in a string course on an outside wall is called a ______

Frieze

20

The overhead interior surface or lining of a room, often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above is the ________

Ceiling

21

A monumental gateway to an ancient Egyptian temple consisting of a pair of tall truncated pyramids and a doorway between them, often decorated with painted reliefs is called a ______

Pylon

22

An external support built to stabilize a structure by opposing its outward thrusts, especially a projecting support built into or against the outside of a masonry wall

A buttress

23

Of or pertaining to a system of construction employing beams or lintels is ____________

Trabeate

24

A picture recess, a shallow slighly raised alcove for displaying something. The spiritual center of a traditional Japanese house and is located in the most formal room,

Tokonoma

25

A Buddhist shrine in India, usually carved out of solid rock on a hillside, having the form of an aisled basilica with a stupa at one end

A chaitya

26

Originally, the main or central inner hall of an ancient Roman house, open to the sky at the center and usually having a pool of r the collection of rainwater. Later, the forecourt of an early Chrustian church, flanked or surrounded by porticoes. Now, an open, skylit court around which a house or building is built is an ______

Atrium

27

A transverse open space separating the nave and the apse of an early Christian church, developing into the transept of later cruciform churches is the ____

Bema

28

A large entrance room of a house or building as a vestibule or lobby . Also a large room or building for public gatherings or entertainment is called a _______

Hall

29

An inclinded bar of masonry carried on a segmental arch and transmitting an outward and downward thrust from a roof or vault to a solid buttress that through its mass transforms the thrust into a vertical one. A characteristic feature of Gothic construction is a ___________

Flying Buttress

30

The low pitched gable enclosed by the buildings horizontal and raking cornices of a Greek or Roman temple. Also a similar or derivative element used to surmount a major division of a facade or crown an opening is called a ___________

Pediment

31

A very large stone used as found, or roughly dressed, especially in ancient construction work is a ___________

Megalith

32

The lowest horizontal member of a framed structure resting on and anchored to a foundation wall, also the horizontal member below a window or door opening  is a ________

Sill

33

A thin, flexible surface that carried loads primarily through tensile stresses is a _______ _____________

Tensile structure

34

A building or other shelter, often of a stately or sumptuous character  enclosing the remains or relics of a saint or other holy person and forming an object of religious veneration and pilgrimage is called a ___

Shrine

35

What are any of a number of closely spaced supports for a railing or banister called?

A baluster

36

A unit of measurement used for standardizing the dimensions of building materials or regulating the proportions of an architectural composition is a __________

Module

37

An inn in the Near East for the overnight accommodation of caravans, usually having a large courtyard enclosed by a solid wall and entered through an imposing gateway is a __________

Caravansary

38

To set bricks or stones in an overlapping arrangement so that each course steps upward and outward frm the vertical face a wall

Corbel

39

An arched structure of stone, brick or reinforced concrete forming a ceiling or roof over a hall, room, or other wholly or paritally enclosed space. Supporting walls must be buttressed to counteract the thrusts of the arching action. This is called a ________

40

Describing a recess in a wall haing the appearance of a window or door inserted to complete a series of windows or to provide symmetry of design

A blind

41

A massive masonry structure having a rectangular base and four smooth, steeply sloping sides facing the cardinal points and meeting at an apex, used in ancient Egypt as the tomb used to bury the mummy  of the pharoah - usually part of a complex within a walled enclosure is a __________

A pyramid

42

A rigid, relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support compressive loads applies at the member ends. In classical architecture, a cylindrical support consisting of a capital, shaft and usually a base, either monolithic or built up of drums the full diameter of the shaft

Column

43

A vaulted structure having a circular plan and usually the form of a portion of a sphere so constructed as to have an equal thrust in all directions is called a _________

Dome

44

An exterior appendage to a building forming a covered approach or vestibule to a doorway is a ________

Porch

45

A slight convexity given to a column to correct an optical illusion of concavity if the sides were straight is called an ________

Entasis

46

A structure from which the temple bell is hung as one of a pair of small, identical, symmetrcal placed pavilions in a Japanese Buddhist temple is a _________

Shoro

47

The inner curve or suface of an arch forming the concave underside is called _________

Intrados

48

A conception or representation resembling the human form or having human attributes in ___________.

Anthropomorphism

49

A relatively small usually foliated ornament terminating the peak of a spire or pinnacle is called a _________.

Finial

50

The principal story of a large building as a palace or villa with formal reception and dining rooms usually one flight above the ground floor is called a __________ ___________

Piano nobile

51

A monumental, freestanding gateway on the approach to a Shinto shrine constisting of 2 pillars connecting at the top by a horizontal crosspiece and a lintel above it, usually curving upward is a ___________

Torii

52

The spirit way that led from the south gate to the royal tomb of the Tang dynasty lined with stone pillars in sculptured animal and human figures is called the _________

Lingdao

53

A unified composition of 2-dimensional shapes or 3-dimensional volumes especially one that has or gives the impression of weight, density and bulk is called ______

Massing

54

The part of a structure that directly receives thrust or pressure, such as a masonry mass receiving and supporting the thrust of part of an arch or vault: a heavy wall supporting the end of a bridge or span and sustaining the pressure of the adjoining earth; a mass or structure resisting the pressure of water on a bridge or pier; or the anchorage for the cables of a suspension bridge is called an _____________

Abutment

55

A spherical triangle forming the transition from the circular plan of a dome to the polygonal plan of its supporting structure is termed ___________

Pendentive

56

A light, usually open building used for concerts, shelter or exhibits, as in a park or fair. Also, a central or flanking subdivision of a facade, usually accented by more elaborate decoration or greater height and distinction of skyline is a ___________

Pavilion

57

A place of residence for a community of persons living in seclusion under religious vows is a ___________

Monastary

58

Ashlar masonry having the visible faces of the dressed stones raised or otherwise contrasted with the horizontal, and usually the vertical joints which may be rabbetted, chamfered or beveled is called ___________

Rustication

59

A lofty, slender tower attached to a mosque, having stairs leading up to one or more projecting balconies from which the Muezzin calls the Muslim people to prayer is a __________

Minaret

60

A circular opening, especially one at the crown of a dome   is called an ___________

Oculus

61

A canopied opening or niche flanked by two columns, piers, or pilasters supporting a gable, lintel or entablature is called an ________.

Aedicule

62

A system for spacing columns in a collanade based on the space between two adjacent columns measured in diameters is called ___________

Intercolumniation

63

A temple tower in Sumarian and Assyrian architecture built in diminishing stages of mud, brick with buttressed walls faced with burnt brick culminating in a summit shrine or temple reached by a series of ramps, thought to be of Summarian origin dating from the end of the 3rd millenium BC is a _____________

Ziggurat

64

The art and science of shaping, ornamenting and assembling materials and building construction is called ________________

Tectonics

65

A property of perception in which there is a tendency to see parts of a visual field as solid well-defined objects standing out against a less distinct background is called _________  ___________.

Figure Ground

66

The measurement and study of the size and proportionsof the human body is called __________.

Anthropometry

67

A sequence of numbers whose reciprocals form an arithmetic progression is called ___________ ___________

Harmonic Progression

68

An artificial, stonelike building material made by mixing cement and various mineral aggregates with sufficient water to cause the cement to set and bind the entire mass

Concrete

69

A projecting structure built out from a sloping roof usually housing a vertical window or ventilating louver is called a _________

Dormer

70

Friday Mosque, a congregational mosque for public prayer especially on Fridays is called ____   ______

Jami Masjid

71

A phallus symbol of the god Siva  in Hindu architecture is called a _________

Linga

72

A covered walk having an arcade or colonnade on one side opening onto a courtyard

Cloister

73

A Buddhist temple in the form of a square or polygonal tower with roofs projecting from each of its many stories, erected as a memorial or to hold relics. From the stupa, the Indian prototype, it gradually changed in form to resemble the traditional multi-storied watchtower as it spread with Buddhism to China and Japan. They were initially built of timber, but from the 6th century on were more frequently of brick or stone, possibly due to Indian influence. These are called ___________

Pagodas

74

An empty space contained within or bounded by mass is a ________

Void

75

The uppermost member of a classical entablature, consisting typically of a cymatium, corona and bed molding

Cornice

76

A superstructure crowning a roof or dome having open or windowed walls to let in light and air is called a ___________

Lantern

77

The external upper covering of a building including the framing for supporting this structure is the ______

Roof

78

A column of steel or reinforced concrete supporting a building above an open ground level, thereby leaving the space available for other uses is called a _________

Piloti

79

Movement characterized by a patterened repetition or alternation of formal elements or motifs in the same or a modified form is called __________

Rhythm

80

A backward slope of the face of a wall as it rises is called the ___________

Batter

81

A country residence or estate is a ________

Villa

82

A porch roof projecting over a driveway at the main entrance to a building and sheltering those getting in an out of vehicles is a _____-_________

Porte-cochere

83

A grove or thicket of trees in a garden or park is a _____

Bosket

84

The lowermost division of a classical entablature, resting directly on the column capitals and supporting the frieze is the _____________.

Architrave

85

having 4 columns, or one on each front is a __________

Tetrastyle

86

The design proportioning and disposition of windows and other exterior openings of a building. Also, an oriental motif having the form of a blind arcade or arch as in medieval cabinet work is called a ___________.

Fenestration

87

The fortified high area or citadel of an ancient Greek city, especially the city of Athens and the site of the Parthenon is an _________

Acropolis

88

A large, porchlike hall leading to the sanctuary of a Hindu or Jain temple, and used for religious dancing and music is called a _________

Mandapa

89

A large hall having many columns in rows supporting a flat roof and sometimes a clerestory prevalent in ancient Egyptian and Achaemenid architecture is called a ______

Hippostyle Hall

90

The state or quality of being combined into one as the ordering of elements in an artistic work  that constitutes a harmonious whole or promotes a singleness of effect is called ___________

Unity

91

An upright, relatively slender shaft or structure, usually of brick or stone, used as a building support or standing alone as a monument is a _________

Pillar

92

The major transform part of a cruciform church crossing the main axis at a right angle between the nave and choir, also either of the projecting arms of this part on either side of the central aisle of a church  is the ___________

Transept

93

What is the French term for a narrow passage between houses or a broad walk planted with trees?

Allée

94

The main surface or background in painting or decorative work. Also the receeding part of a visual field against which a figure is percieved is called the ________

Ground

95

A glass enclosed porch, room or gallery used for sunbathing or therapeudic exposure to sunlight is a _________

Solarium

96

A monumental, usally ornate gateway tower to a Hindu temple enclosure, especially in Southern India is called a __________

Gopura

97

A sacred, or holy place where the principal alter is placed is the __________

Sanctuary

98

What is the part of an image represented as being at the maximum distance from the frontal plane?

The background

99

A palace hall in Chinese architecture, always on the median axis of the site plan, and constructed on a raised platform faced with brick or stone is called a 

Dian

100

The portico before the nave of an early Christian or Byzantine church appropriate to penetants. Also, an entrance hall or vestibule leading to the nave of a church is the _________

Narthex

101

Forming an intervening space is termed ________

Interstitial

102

A structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and composed of linear members subject only to tensile or axial compression is a ________

Truss

103

A squared building stone finely dressed on all faces adjacent to those of other stones so as to permet very thin mortar joints in an ______

Ashlar

104

A region or expanse of space characterized by a particular property, feature or activity is called a _________

Field

105

The physical volume or bulk of a solid body is called _________

Mass

106

A detail that is emphasized by contrasting with its surroundings. Also a distinctive but subordinate pattern, morif or color is an ____

Accent

107

An area used for a stroll or walk, especially in a public place as for pleasure or display is a _________

Promenade

108

Applied science, the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society and the environment drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science and pure science is __________

Technology

109

An oranamental arrangement of flower beds of different shapes and sizes are called __________

Parterre

110

Curved or arched like a bow; a term used in decribing the arched or vaulted structure of a Romanesque church or Gothic cathedral, as distinguished from the trabeated architecture of an Egyption hippostyle hall or Greek Doric temple is an ______

Arcuate

111

Something that represents something else by association, resemblance or convention especially a material object used to represent something invisible or immaterial is a ___________

Symbol

112

Pertaining to and involving or composed of right angles is ___________

Orthographic

113

A Hindu temple cut out of solid rock to resemble a chariot is called a ____

Rath

114

A monument erected in memory of a deceased person whose remains are buried elsewhere is a ___________

Cenotaph

115

A lengthly open space around a public building used as a promenade is a _______

Stoa

116

A facing of wood paneling, especially when covering the lower portion of an interior wall, is a ____________-

Wainscot

117

A freestanding gateway having the form of a pylon and preceeding the main gateway to an ancient Egyptian temple or sacred enclosure is a ___________

Propylon

118

The process of changing in form or structure thru a series of discreet permutations and manipulations in response to a specific context or set of conditions without a loss of identity or concept is a ___________

Transformation

119

A space between two windows. Also, the art or process of arranging the opening in a wall is called ________

Interfenestration

120

A circular arrangement of megaliths enclosing a dolmen, or burial mound is called a __________

Cromlech

121

A large imposing public building or private residence especially in Italy is a ________

Palazzo

122

A large and stately tomb, especially in the form of a building for housing the tombs of many individuals, often of a single family, is a __________

Mausoleum

123

A raised level with a vertical or sloping front or sides faced with masonry, turf or the like, especially one of a series of levels raising above one another is a __________

Terrace

124

A private or side entrance as for pedestrians next to a port-chocher is a ________

Postern

125

A building, or semi-independant unit of a building, typically having a rectangular principal chamber with a center hearth and a porch, often of columns in antis, traditional in Greek, Mycenaean times and believed to be the ancestor of the Doric temple is a __________

Megaron

126

Any of a series of small parallel beams for supporting floors, ceilings or flat roofs are _______

Joist

127

The exact correspondence in size, form and arrangement of parts on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane or about a center or axis, also regularity of form or arrangement in terms of like, reciprical, or corresponding parts is _____________

Symmetry

128

A court adjacent to or within a building, especially one enclosed on all four sides is a ___________

Courtyard

129

A geometric figure having the dimensions of length, breadth and thickness is a _________

Solid

130

Any of the longitudinal divisions of a church, separated from the nave by a row of columns or pies. Also a walkway between or along sections of seats in a theater, auditorium, church or other place of assemby is an _____

aisle

131

The hall of worship of a Shinto shrine, usually in front of the honden is called the _________

Haiden

132

An open square or public place in a city or town, especially in Italy, is a ________

Piazza

133

A subordinate or private place of worship or prayer

Chapel

134

The recessed triangular space enclosed by the horizontal and raking cornices of  a triangular pediment, often decorated with sculpture, also a similar space between an arch and the horizontal head of a door or window below is a ___________

Tympanum

135

A castle or fortress of the Spanish Moors is an __________.

Alcazar

136

A circular building in classical architecture is a _______

Tholos

137

A small entrance hall between the outer door and the interior of a house or building is a ___________

Vestibule

138

The size or extent of a 3 dimensional object or region of space measured in cubic units is the __________

Volume

139

The covered walk of an atrium or cloister. Also, an aisle encircling the end of the choir or chancel of a church, originally used for processions is called an _____________.

Ambulatory

140

A decorative post in Shinto architecture shaped by human hands is called a ________

Hashira

141

The sanctuary where the main image of worship is kept in a Japanese Buddhist temple, the Jodo Shinsu and Nicheiren sects of Buddhism use the term Hondo for this sanctuary.  The Shingon and Tendai sects use Chudo and Zen sect uses Butsuden. This is called ______

Kondo

142

An area open to the sky and mostly or entirely surrounded by walls or buildings is a ___

Court

143

The placement of two columns or pilasters very close together is an _____________

Accouplement

144

What is an arena  or structure for equestrian and other spectacles. Also, an open air stadium with an oval track for horse and chariot races in ancient Greece and Rome?

Hippodrome

145

The horizontal section of a classical order that rests  on the columns usually composed of a cornice, frieze and architrave is called an ________

Entablature

146

A series of arches supported on piers or columns. Also, an arched, roofed gallery or passageway with shops on one or both sides is an ________

Arcade

147

A public square or open space in a city or town is a ________

Plaza

148

A monastary under the supervision of a abbot, or a convent under the supervision of an abbess, belonging to the highest rank of such institution is an _______

Abbey

149

A vertical member between the lights of a window or the panels in wainsoting is  a _________

Mullion

150

A solid mass of masonry, visible above ground level and serving as the foundation of a building, especially the platform forming the floor and substructure of a classical temple is a _______

Podium

151

A tall, 4 sided shaft of stone that tapers as it rises to a pyramidal point originating in ancient Egypt as a sacred symbol of the sun god Ra and usually standing in pairs astride temple entrances is an _________

Obelisk

152

The study of signs and symbols as elements of communication is _________

Semiotics

153

The principal or central part of a church extending from the narthex to the choir or chancel and usually flanked by aisles is the ______

Nave

154

The level base surface of a room or hall upon which one stands or walks.  Also, a continuous supporting surface extending horizontally throughout a building having a number of rooms and constituting one level of a structure is its _________

Floor 

155

A vertical supporting structure as a section of wall between 2 openings or one supporting the end of an arch or lintel. Also a cast in place concrete foundation formed by boring with a large auger or excavating by hand a shaft in the earth to a suitable bearing stratum and filling the shaft with concrete is a _________

Pier

156

In Indian architecture, a roof-top kiosk or pavilion having a dome usually supported on four columns

Chattri

157

A temple dedicated to all the gods of a people. Also a public building serving as the burial place of, or containing the memorials to the famous dead of a nation is a ______________

Pantheon

158

A diviation from the normal or expected form, order or arrangement is an ____________

Anomaly

159

A megalithic tomb of the Neolithic and early Bronze ages found in the British Isles and Europe consisting of a roofed burial chamber and narrow entrance passage coverd by a tumulus believed to have been used for successive family or clan burials spanning a number of generations is called a ___________ ______

Passage grave

160

A portion of an interior rising above adjacent rooftops and having windows admitting daylight to the interior.Also, the uppermost section of a Gothic nave characterized by a series of large window rising above adjacent rooftops to admit dayligyht to the interior

Clerestory

161

A construction upon which a column, statue, memorial shaft, or the like is elevated usually consisting of a base, a dado and a cornice cap is called a 

Pedestal

162

A large open porch usually roofed and partially enclosed as by a railing, often extending across the front and sides of a house is a ___________

Veranda

163

An external, solid angle of a walll, or one of the stones forming such an angle, usually differentiated from the adjoining surfaces by material, color, size, texture or projection  is a ______

Quoin

164

A room or covered area open on one side and provided with seats used as a meeting place in ancient Greece and Rome, also a large apsidal extension of the interior volume of a church normally on the main axis is called an _______

Exedra

165

An axial arrangement of doorways connecting a series of rooms so as to provide a vista down the entire length of a suite, also an axial arrangement of mirrors on opposite sides of a room so as to give an effect of an infinitely long vista is called an ____________

Enfilade

166

A tower of a Hindu temple, usually tapered convexly and capped by an amalaka is a

Sikhara

167

The study of the use of symbols is called __________

Symbology

168

The wedge shaped often embellished voussoir at the crown of an arch, serving to lock the other voussoirs in place. Until this is in place no true arch action is encurred. This is called a __________

Keystone

169

The theory or doctrine that psychological or physiological phenomena do not occur thru the summation of individual elements as reflexes or sensations but thru Gestalts functioning separately or inter-relatedly is termed __________ ___________

Gestalt Psychology

170

A ceiling, soffit or vault decorated with a pattern of recessed panels  is called a ___________

Lacunar

171

The shape and structure of something as distinguished from its substance or material.  Also, the manner of arranging and coordinating elements and parts of a composition so as to produce a coherant image. The formal structure of a work of art is called the _____

Form

172

A circular stone shelter of the Apulia region of southern Italy roofed with conical constructions of corbelled dry masonry usually whitewashed and painted with figures or symbols is a _________

Trullo

 

(Many of these are over 1000 years old and still in use today, usually located in vineyards and used as storage structures or as temporary living quarters during the harvest)

173

A frame supporting open latticework used as a screen or support for growing vines or plants is a __________

Trellis

174

One of the five regular polyhedrons (tetrahedron, hexahedron, octohedron, dodecahedron or icosahedran) is called a ________ solid

Platonic

175

The crowning member of a classical cornice, usually a cyma recta  is called a ________

Cymatium

176

A carved structure for spanning an opening, designed to support a vertical load primarilty by axial compression is an ___

Arch

177

A stiff vertical support, especially a wooden column in timer framing is a ______

Post

178

Any of the large round or triangular stone towers found in Sardinia and dating from the 2nd mellenium BC to the Roman conquest is called a ________

Nuraghe

179

The state or quality of being identical or homogenous or regular is called __________

Uniformity

180

Re-entering, or pointing inward as an interior angle of a polygon that is greater than 180 degrees is _________

Reenterant

181

A thin rigid, curved surface structure formed to enclose a volume, applied loads develep compressive, tensile and sheer stresses, acting on the plane of the shell; has limited bending capability and is unsuitable for heavy loads  is a _________ ____

Shell structure

182

Comparative, proper or harmonious relation of one part to another or to the whole with respect to magnitute, quantity or degree. Also, the equality between two ratios in which the first of the four terms divided by the second equals the third divided by the fourth is ________

Proportion

183

A low, or partial story, between two main stories of a building, espcially one that projects as a balcony, and forms a composition with the story beneath it is a _________

Mezzanine

184

The triangular portion of wall enclosing the end of a pitched roof from cornice or eaves to ridge is called a ________

Gable

185

Any of various upright constructions presenting a continuous surface and serving to enclose, divide or protect an area is a _____

Wall

186

A marketplace or public square in an ancient Greek city, usually surrounded with public buildings and porticoes and commonly used as a place for popular or political assembly is called an _________

Agora

187

The principal church of a diocese, containing the bishop's throne called the cathedra is the ___________

Cathedral

188

The space about the altar of a church for the clergy and choir, often elevated above the nave and separated from it by a railing or screen

Chancel

189

A bay window supported from below by corbels or brackets is called an _________

Oriel

190

A major spatial division, usually one of a series, marked or partitioned off by the prinicpal vertical supports of a structure. Also any of a number of principal compartments or division of a wall, roof or other part of a building marked off by vertical or transverse supports. is called a _____

Bay

191

A compound vault formed by the perpendicular intersection of two vaults forming arched diagonal arises called groins, also called cross vault is termed _______ _________

Cross vault

192

A condition of logical, harmonious, or comprehensible arrangement in which each element of a group is properly disposed with reference to other elements and to its purpose. Also, an arrangement of columns supporting an entablature, each column comprising a capital, shaft, and usually a base is an _________

Order

193

A shady shelter of shrubs and branches or of latticework intertwined with climbing vines and flowers is an ____-

Arbor

194

The 3-dimensional field in which objects and events occur and have relative positions and direction is a _________

Space

195

 A tall, acutely tapering pyramidal structure in a steeple or tower is a __________

Spire

196

In the 9th century the design idea or sketch from which an architectural project will be developed. Now the basic scheme or concept for an architectural design represented by a diagram is called a ________

Parti

197

A unified configuration, pattern, or field of specific properties that cannot be derived from the summation of the component parts is called ______

Gestalt

198

A bulding for public Christian worship

Church

199

An ancient Egyptian tomb mud and brick, rectangular in plan with a flat roof and sloping sides from which a shaft leads to underground burial and offering chambers is called a ___________

Mastaba

200

A series of regularly spaced columns supporting an entablature and usually one side of a roof structure

Colonnade

201

A prehistoric monument consisting of two or more large upright stones supporting a horizontal stone slab found especially in Britain and France and usually regarded as a tomb is called a ______

Dolmen

202

One of the three horizontal bands making up the architrave in the Ionic order, also any broad, flat horizontal surface, as the outer edge of a cornice or roof is called a ___________.

Fascia

203

A sculptured female figure used as a column is called a _________

Caryatid

204

A Buddhist monastary in Indian architecture, often excavated from solid rock, consisting of a central, pillared chamber surrounded a veranda onto which open small sleeping cells. Adjacent to this cloister was a courtyard containing the main stuppa. This is called a ___________

Vihara

205

A building or place of worship for Jews is a ___________

Synagogue

206

A bracket system used in traditional Chinese construction to support roof beams, project the eaves outward, and support the interior ceiling. The abscence of a triangular tiered frame in Chinese architecture made it necessary to multiply the number of supports under the rafters. In order to reduce the number of pillars this would normally require the area of support afforded by each pillar was increased by using this method. The main beams support the roof thru intermediary beam posts and shorter upper beams, enabling the roof to be given a concave curve. This distinctive curve is believed to have developed at the beginning of the Tang period, presumably to lighten the visual weight of the roof and allow more daylight into the interior. This is called a ___________ 

Dougong

207

A screen, usually of louvers, placed on the outside of a building to shield the windows from direct sunlight

A brise-soliel

208

A long, relatively narrow room or hall, especially one for public use and having architectural importance through its scale or decorative treatment. Also, a roofed promenade especially one extending inside or outside along the exterior wall of a building is called a ___________

Gallery

209

A beam supporting the weight above a door or window opening is a _______

Lintel

210

The major part of a pedestal between the base and the cornice or cap, also the lower portion of an interior wall when faced or treated differently from the rest of the wall is called a ___

Dado

211

A proportion determing the relationship of a representation to that which it represents, also a certain proportionate size extent or degree, usually judged in relation to some standard or point of reference is a ____________ 

Scale

212

The direction toward which Muslin face to pray, especially the Ka'ba at Mecca, also the wall in a mosque in which the Mihrab is set oriented to Mecca is called _________

Qibla

213

Between antae, the rectangular piers or pilasters formed by thickening the ends of the projecting wall is called  ___ - _____

In-Antis

214

A low protective wall at the edge of  a terrace, balcony or  roof, especially that part of an exterior wall, firewall or party wall that rises above the roof is a ___________

Parapet

215

What is an elevated platform projecting from the wall of a building and enclosed by a railing or parapet?

A balcony

216

The bulbous, ribbed stone finial of a sikhara in Indian architecture is called a ___________

amalaka

217

An oval or round building with tiers of seats around a central arena, as those used in ancient Rome for gladiatoriual contests and spectables. Also, a level area of oval or circular shape surrounded by rising ground is an ____________.

Amphitheater

218

What is a large oblong building used as a hall of justice and public meeting place in ancient Rome, typically having a high central space lit by a clerestory and covered by timber trusses, and raised dais in a semicirculare apse for the tribual called

A basilica

219

An upright stone slab or pillar used as a monument or marker is a __________

Stele

220

A large picture painted on, or applied directly to a ceiling or wall surface is a ________

Mural

221

What is a large or central courtyard of an Italian Pallazo called?

Cortile

222

A projecting molding having the profile of a double curve  with the concave part projecting beyond the convex part is a ______

Cyma Recta

223

A building or architectural feature of a building, designed and situated to look out upon a pleasing scene is a ___________

Belvedere

224

A beam or other rigid structural member extending beyond a fulcrum and supported by a balancing member or a downward force behind the fulcrum is called a ________

Cantilever

225

The distinctively treated upper end of a column, pillar or pier, crowning the shaft and taking the weight of the entablature or architrave is the _________

Capital

226

An applied science concerned with the characteristics of people that need to be considered in the design of devices and systems in order that people and things will interact efficiently and safely is called ____________

Ergonomics

227

A proportion between the two dimensions of a plane figure or the two divisions of a line in which the ratio of the smaller  to the larger is the same as the ratio of the larger to the whole; a ratio of approximately .618 to 1 is called the ________ _________

Golden Section

228

The grand columnar audience hall in a Persian palace is the ___________.

Apadana

229

A large, landed estate for farming and ranching in north and south America. Areas once under Spanish influence, also the main house on such as estate is a ______

Hacienda

230

The curve assumed by a perfectly flexible, uniform cable suspended freely from two points not in the same vertical line (for a load that is uniformly distributed in a horizontal projection, the curve approached that of a parabola)

A catenary

231

The front of a building or of any of its sides facing a public way or space, especially one distinguished by its architectural treatment is called a _________

Facade

232

A historic burial ground, especially a large elaborate one of a city, is called a ___________

Necropolis

233

A bank of earth placed against one or more exterior walls of a building as protection against extremes in temperature is a __________

Berm

234

A system of elements ranked, classified and organized one above another according to importance or significance is ___________

Hierarchy

235

The act  or process of repeating formal elements or motifs in a design is __________

Repitition

236

Any level surface, line or point used as a reference for the positioning or arrangement of elements in a composition is called a ______

Datum

237

The physical configuration of a site or region is its ____________

Topography

238

An ornamental recess in a wall, often semi-circular in plan, and surmounted by a half dome as for a statue or other decorative object is a __________

Niche

239

A colonnaded or archaded space within the body of the  building but open to the air on one side, often at an upper story overlooking an open court. This is an important feature of the architecture of the Italian Palazzi. This is called _________

Loggia

240

A central line that bisects a two-dimensional body or figure or about which a three dimensional body or figure is symmetrical. Also, a straight line to which elements in a composition are referred for measurement or symmetry is called an ___

Axis

241

A building, as a prison, hospital, library or the like so arranged that all parts of the interior are visible from a single point is called an _______

Opticon

242

A bell tower, usually one near but not attached to the body of a church is a ______

Campanile

243

A monumental gateway in Chinese architecture having a trabeated form of stone or wood construction with one, three or five openings and often bold, projecting roofs, erected as a memorial at the entrance to a palace tomb or sacred place related to the Indian toranas and the Japanese torii is called a ____________

Pailou

244

A small, cubicle stone building in the courtyard of the great mosque at Mecca containing a sacred black stone and regarded by Muslims as the House of God, the object of their pilgrimages, and the point toward which they turn in praying is called the __________

Ka'ba

245

A Muslim building or place of public worship is a ________

Mosque

246

A structure of parallel collonades supporting an open roof of beams and crossing rafters is a _________

Pergola

247

A pagoda in Chinese architecture is a ____

Ta

248

A horizontal course of brick or stone flush with or projecting beyond the face of a building is called a ________ ___________

String course

249

An elaborately carved ceremonial gateway in Indian, Buddhist and Hindu architecture having 2-3 lintels between 2 posts is called a

Torona

250

The science of human beings, specifically, the study of the origins, physical and cultural development, and environmental and social relations of humankind is called _______________.

Anthropology

251

The study of the symbolic and communicative role of the spatial seperation individuals maintain in various social and inter-personal situations is called _______

Proxemics

252

What is an ornamental canopy of stone or marble permanently placed over the high alter in a church?

A Baldachin

253

An artificial mound of earth or stone especially over an ancient grave is a _________

Tumulus

254

An early and typical example that exhibits the essential features of a class or group, and which later stages are based or judged is called a _________

Prototype

255

An example serving as a pattern, imitation or emulation in the creation of something is a _________

Model

256

A niche or decorative panel in a mosque designating the quibla is a _______

Mihrab

257

A collonade surrounding a building or a courtyard is a ___________

Peristyle

258

The flat slab forming the top of a column capital, pain in the Doric style, but molded or otherwise enriched in other styles is called the ________

Abacus

259

The orderly, pleasing or congruent arrangement of the elements or parts in an artistic hall is called _______

Harmony

260

The lowermost portion of a wall, column, pier or other structure, usually distinctively treated and considered as an architectural unit is the ______

Base

261

Stress or  prominance given to an element of a composition by means of contrast, anamoly or counterpoint is called __________

Emphasis

262

A sun-dried brick made of clay and straw, commonly used in countries with little rainfall is called _________.

Adobe

263

A semicircular or polygonal projection of a building, usually vaulted and used especially at the sanctuary or east end of a church is the _____.

Apse

264

A diagram of the cosmos often used to guide the design of Indian temple plans is called a ______

Mandala

265

Opposition or juxtaposition of dissimlar elements in a work of art to intensify each element's properties and produce a more dynamic expressiveness

Contrast

266

A wall capable of supporting an imposed load, as from a floor or roof of a building is a _______ ______

Bearing wall

267

A "womb-chamber", the dark, innermost sanctuary of a Hindu temple where the statue of the deity is placed is called the ________-_________

Garbha-griha

268

A light structure on a dome or roof serving as a belfry, lantern or belvedere, also a small dome covering a circular or polygonal area is called a ___________

Cupola

269

A porch or walkway having a roof supported by columns, often leading to the entrance of a building is a _________

Portico

270

A window or doorway in the form of a round headed archway flanked on either side by narrower components, the side compartments being capped with entablatures an which the arch of the central compartment rests is a ___________ motif.

Palladian

271

A complex and ornate design that employs flowers, foliage and sometimes animal and geometric figures to produce an intricate pattern of interlaced lines is an ____________.

Arabesque

272

The triangular shape between 2 adjoining arches or between the left or right side of an arch and the rectangular frame around it, or beteeen the head of a window below and the sill of the window above is called a ______________

Spandrel

273

The public square or marketplace of an ancient Roman city, the center of judicial and business affairs, the place of assembly for the people usually including a basilica and a temple is the _____

Forum

274

A Buddhist memorial mound errected to enshrine a relic of Buddha and to commemorate some event or mark a sacred spot, consisting of a domed shaped mound raised on a platform, surrounded by an outer ambulatory with a stone bedika and 4 toranas and crowned by a chattri is a ____________

Stupa

275

The projecting, slablike member of a classical cornice, supported by the bed molding and crowned by the cymatium

Corona

276

A promenade, court or indoor mall usually having a vaulted roof  and lined with commercial establishments is called a ___________

Gallaria

277

What is a state of equilibrium between contrasting, opposing, or interacting elements, also the pleasing or harmonious arrangement or proportion of parts or elements in a design or composition

Balance

278

A place or point of entering or beginning is a _____________

Threshold