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Flashcards in Arm & forearm Deck (65):
1

humerus fx in males in 3rd decade of life usually d/t?

high velocity trauma

2

humerus fx in females in 7th decade of life usually d/t?

low velocity falls

3

clinical px of humerus fx ?

severe pain in area of mid arm
+/- shoulder pain / elbow - check for other injuries
swelling / ecchymosis
TTP +/- crepitus

4

if a pt w/ a humerus fx px w/ shortening of arm- that indicates significant displacement of?

significant displacement of the humeral head

5

humerus fx imaging

AP
Lateral

6

what nerve should you test for in humerus fx / MC nerve in humerus fx

radial nerve

7

if a pt w/ humerus fx has damage to the radial nerve, how will they px?

weak extension of wrist, finger and thumb
weak elbow supination

8

how do you test for radial n damage in humerus fx

thumbs up sign
resisted extension of thumb

9

non surgical tx for humerus fx is indicated for? what would you use?

older pts
transverse fx
mid-shift

functional bracing

10

surfical tx for humerus fx is indicated for

severe displacement
young its
adequate alignment not maintained
open fx
NV or brachial plexus injury
segmental fx
floating elbow
non-union
pathological fractures

11

radial head fx - mechanism of injury

FOOSH on abducted arm

12

radial head fx px?

pain in latereal elbow
decreased ROM

13

radial head fx there will be decreased pronation / supination in?

wrist

14

radial head fx imaging (3)

ap
external oblique
lateral

15

what will you see on radial head fx imagine?

ELBOW SAIL SIGN / ANT FAT PAD

16

radial head fx tx?

long arm posterior splint x4d
sling for 1-2 weeks
analgesics
gentle ROM
serial radiographies 2 weeks
PT

17

supracondylar fx mechanism of injury

FOOSH from moderate high onto fully extended elbow

18

FOOSH from moderate high onto fully extended elbow causes (supracondylar fx)

extra-articular fx of distal humerus at elbow

19

PX of supracondylar fx

tenderness at elbow
edema at elbow
prominent olecranon

20

supracondylar fx imaging (3)

ap
external oblique
lateral

21

supracondylar fx conserative tx

long arm posterior splint
sling
analgesics
serial xray 2 weeks

22

supracondylar fx ORIF surgical tx?

two lateral pin
three lateral pin

23

two lateral pain supracondylar fx

stable fixation with medial pin

24

three lateral pin supracondylar fx

unstable fractures
every pin needs a bicortical fixation

25

for extension type fx (supracondylar fx) what maneuver is used?

flexion reduction

26

two types of blows that can result in an olecranon fx

direct
indirect

27

indirect olecranon fx causes

fall on outstretched UE

28

indirect olecranon fx usually results in what type of fx

transverse
oblique

29

direct olecranon fx result in what type of fx

comminuted

30

PX of olecranon fx
-pain?
-inability to?

pain at posterior elbow
palpable defect
inability to extend elbow

31

olecranon fx imaging

ap
external oblique
lateral

32

olecranon fx tx

orif w/ tension band

orif w/ plate and screw fixation

33

elbow dislocation mechanism of injury

falls onto extended arm

34

elbow dislocation PX
degree?
posterior?

elbow at 45
olecranon posteriorly

35

elbow dislocation imaging

ap
external oblique
lateral

36

what nerves / artery should be assessed before and after reduction for elbow dislocation

ulnar n
radial n
median n
brachial A

37

simple elbow dislocation tx

reduction

38

complex fx / elbow dislocation tx

ORIF
long arm splint / sling x2 weeks

39

lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) MC tendons involved

extensor carpi radalis brevis

extensor digitorum

40

medial epicondylitis ( golfers elbow) MC tendons involved

pronator teres
flexor carpi radalis

41

lateral epicondylitis PX

pain at lateral Epidcondyle and Extensor tendon wad

pain w/ resisted wrist extension

* think lateral --> E, E, E
lateral epicondyle
Extensor tendon wad
pain w/ resisted wrist extension

42

will LATERAL epicondylitis have pain w/ resisted wrist EXTENSION

yes

43

medial epicondylitis PX

medial epicodnly and FLEXOR tendon wad pain
pain w/ resisted wrist flexion


44

will MEDIAL epicondylitis have pain w/ resisted wrist FLEXION

yes

45

epicondylitis tx

rest
ice cube massage
brace
naproxen
cortisone shot
PT

46

both forearm fx is MC in ?

men

47

both forearm fx direct trauma causes

protecting ones hand

48

both forearm fx indirect trauma causes

MVA, falls from heigh, athletic competition

49

both forearm fx imaging

X-ray entire forearm including elbow and wrist

check NV

50

both forearm fx tx

sugar tong splint in ED

51

displaced both forearm fx tx

ORIF

52

non-displaced both forearm fx

casting

53

greenstick fx

one side broken, one side bent
incomplete fracture of long bone

54

greenstick fx mechanism of injury

bending force applied to perpendicular shaft

55

greenstick fx tx

sugar tong w/ referral to ortho
analgesics
casting x4 weeks
can split if pt / fam is reliable and the fx is stable

56

buckle fx (torus fx) mechanism of injury
-incomplete fx at __ after ___

metaphysical diaphysial jxn after FOOSH

57

incomplete fx at metaphysical diaphysial jxn after FOOSH

buckle fx

58

colles fx

fracture of distal radius

fx of distal radial metaphysical region w/ DORSAL angulation and impaction

59

colles fx is a result of

FOOSH

60

fx of distal radial metaphysical region w/ dorsal angulation and impaction

colles fx

61

colles fx - falling onto ___ wrist

extended

62

PX of colles fx

swollen
bruised
tender
DORSAL displacement of distal segment

63

colles fx tx - conservative

closed reduction perc pinning (CRPP)
sugar tong splint immobilization -->
long / short arm cast 4-6 weeks

64

smith fracture falling onto __ wrist

flexed

65

colles fracture tx - surfical

ORIF --> splint / cast immobilization