Flashcards in art 201-250 Deck (50):
what materials make up the outer ring of stonehenge
huge sarsen pieces arranged in post and lintel construction
what makes up the second outermost ring of stonehenge
In all four printmaking processes, a latent image is created on a ___
which printmaking processes involve the carving of a design onto the surface of the printing plate
relief and intaglio printmaking
name three types of material that are used for the plate in relief printmaking
wood, linoleum, and synthetic material
in relief printmaking, what tool is used to roll ink over the surface of the printing plate
what tool is used to force the ink onto paper in relief and intaglio printmaking
what is the register in relief printmaking
a device that lines up plates for printing
what is a monotype
a combination of printmaking and painting in which an artist paints onto a printing plate and then transfers the impression onto paper
this method of printmaking is much like relief printmaking, but works in the opposite manner
describe intaglio printmaking
the design is engraved into a wood or metal plate and en ink is laid into the grooves to print the image
the process of cutting lines into the surface of a plate is called
etching is an (relief/intaglio) process
describe the etching technique
the design is incised into a wax covered metal plate. the plate is then immersed in acid, which eats away at the exposed design. ink is then laid into the grooves create by the acid.
what are the two main types of intaglio printmaking
engraving (non-acid) and etching (acid)
what is drypoint
an intaglio technique that involves the scratching of the design onto the plate with a sharp point
what is the difference between drypoint and engraving
drypoint makes incisions by scratching, while engraving does this by carving. Engraved lines are therefore smooth and hard while drypoint makes soft, fuzzy lines.
what is burr
the raised metal left around the edge of a design in engraving or drypoint.
what is mezzotint
mezzotint is an intaglio process in which the surface of a plate is roughened evenly. the image is then smoothed into the plate. this process is known for its ability to create high quality tone and shades.
who invented mezzotint
prince rupert in 1649
who invented lithography
alois senefelder in 1798
describe the lithography process
the image is drawn onto the plate with a waxy pencil or crayon. the plate is the immersed in water, which remains only on the non-oily parts of the plate. the ink that is then applied only sticks to the oily design and resists the water. the image is then transferred to paper with a press.
What five aspects of context may art historians examine?
patronage, viewer access, physical location, cost, and subject
What assumption does art history make as it examine changes in style over time?
The work of one generation of artists will impact the next in the same cultural setting
How do art historians often begin their analysis of a work of art?
close examination of the work
Why is direct examination of a work better than examination of a reproduction?
many qualities of an artwork are lost by examining reproducing
What three qualities of an artwork are lost when examine a reproduction?
size, texture, and some color quality
Why might an art historian choose to examine a reproduction instead of the original work?
The original work may be damaged or lost
What artistic sources may art historians examine to understand the context of an artwork?
associated studies such as sketches and other works by the same artist or contemporaries
What three written sources may art historians use in contextual examination?
letters between the artist and patron, other documents regarding the artwork's commission and art criticism
What three factors may art historians consider when determining the context of a work?
cost of materials. the function of the work, and literature, music, theater, and history of the time
What two methods may art historians use to immerse themselves in an artistic context?
interviews with artists an consumers of art and participant observation
When did art history begin as an academic discipline?
the mid 18th century
Which Roman historian sought to analyze historical and contemporary art?
Pliny the Elder
What book, analyzing historical and contemporary art, did Pliny the Elder write?
Which Italian author and artist wrote The Lives of the Artists?
Johann Joachim Wickelmann
Enlightenment scholar, shifted the focus of art history to study of stylistic development over time
What aspect of art analysis received increasing emphasis in the 19th and 20th centuries?
the relationship between formal qualities of a work and its context
What group has recently proposed a revised view of art history?
feminist art historians
What have feminist historians noticed about traditional art history?
It tended to focus on white men
How has art history as a discipline changed in response to revisionist views?
Art history has become more international, multicultural, and inclusive
What major trend is observable in the changing focus of art history over time?
Artistic genius and individualism has diminished while "visual culture" has increased
How have we gleaned most of our information about the earliest humans?
artifacts from earlier cultures
Of what materials are most surviving accent artworks made?
stone, metal, or fired clay
style that violated artistic subject-matter conventions
pop art icon whose work mocked the art world
pop artist who used comic-book style illustration
pop artist who used industrial stencils in his art
artistic style that reduced art to bare essentials