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Flashcards in art 201-250 Deck (50):
1

what materials make up the outer ring of stonehenge

huge sarsen pieces arranged in post and lintel construction

2

what makes up the second outermost ring of stonehenge

bluestones

3

In all four printmaking processes, a latent image is created on a ___

printing plate

4

which printmaking processes involve the carving of a design onto the surface of the printing plate

relief and intaglio printmaking

5

name three types of material that are used for the plate in relief printmaking

wood, linoleum, and synthetic material

6

in relief printmaking, what tool is used to roll ink over the surface of the printing plate

a brayer

7

what tool is used to force the ink onto paper in relief and intaglio printmaking

a burnisher

8

what is the register in relief printmaking

a device that lines up plates for printing

9

what is a monotype

a combination of printmaking and painting in which an artist paints onto a printing plate and then transfers the impression onto paper

10

this method of printmaking is much like relief printmaking, but works in the opposite manner

intaglio printmaking

11

describe intaglio printmaking

the design is engraved into a wood or metal plate and en ink is laid into the grooves to print the image

12

the process of cutting lines into the surface of a plate is called

engraving

13

etching is an (relief/intaglio) process

intaglio

14

describe the etching technique

the design is incised into a wax covered metal plate. the plate is then immersed in acid, which eats away at the exposed design. ink is then laid into the grooves create by the acid.

15

what are the two main types of intaglio printmaking

engraving (non-acid) and etching (acid)

16

what is drypoint

an intaglio technique that involves the scratching of the design onto the plate with a sharp point

17

what is the difference between drypoint and engraving

drypoint makes incisions by scratching, while engraving does this by carving. Engraved lines are therefore smooth and hard while drypoint makes soft, fuzzy lines.

18

what is burr

the raised metal left around the edge of a design in engraving or drypoint.

19

what is mezzotint

mezzotint is an intaglio process in which the surface of a plate is roughened evenly. the image is then smoothed into the plate. this process is known for its ability to create high quality tone and shades.

20

who invented mezzotint

prince rupert in 1649

21

who invented lithography

alois senefelder in 1798

22

describe the lithography process

the image is drawn onto the plate with a waxy pencil or crayon. the plate is the immersed in water, which remains only on the non-oily parts of the plate. the ink that is then applied only sticks to the oily design and resists the water. the image is then transferred to paper with a press.

23

What five aspects of context may art historians examine?

patronage, viewer access, physical location, cost, and subject

24

What assumption does art history make as it examine changes in style over time?

The work of one generation of artists will impact the next in the same cultural setting

25

How do art historians often begin their analysis of a work of art?

close examination of the work

26

Why is direct examination of a work better than examination of a reproduction?

many qualities of an artwork are lost by examining reproducing

27

What three qualities of an artwork are lost when examine a reproduction?

size, texture, and some color quality

28

Why might an art historian choose to examine a reproduction instead of the original work?

The original work may be damaged or lost

29

What artistic sources may art historians examine to understand the context of an artwork?

associated studies such as sketches and other works by the same artist or contemporaries

30

What three written sources may art historians use in contextual examination?

letters between the artist and patron, other documents regarding the artwork's commission and art criticism

31

What three factors may art historians consider when determining the context of a work?

cost of materials. the function of the work, and literature, music, theater, and history of the time

32

What two methods may art historians use to immerse themselves in an artistic context?

interviews with artists an consumers of art and participant observation

33

When did art history begin as an academic discipline?

the mid 18th century

34

Which Roman historian sought to analyze historical and contemporary art?

Pliny the Elder

35

What book, analyzing historical and contemporary art, did Pliny the Elder write?

Natural History

36

Which Italian author and artist wrote The Lives of the Artists?

Giorgio Vasari

37

Johann Joachim Wickelmann

Enlightenment scholar, shifted the focus of art history to study of stylistic development over time

38

What aspect of art analysis received increasing emphasis in the 19th and 20th centuries?

the relationship between formal qualities of a work and its context

39

What group has recently proposed a revised view of art history?

feminist art historians

40

What have feminist historians noticed about traditional art history?

It tended to focus on white men

41

How has art history as a discipline changed in response to revisionist views?

Art history has become more international, multicultural, and inclusive

42

What major trend is observable in the changing focus of art history over time?

Artistic genius and individualism has diminished while "visual culture" has increased

43

How have we gleaned most of our information about the earliest humans?

artifacts from earlier cultures

44

Of what materials are most surviving accent artworks made?

stone, metal, or fired clay

45

pop art

style that violated artistic subject-matter conventions

46

Andy Warhol

pop art icon whose work mocked the art world

47

Roy Lichenstein

pop artist who used comic-book style illustration

48

Robert Indiana

pop artist who used industrial stencils in his art

49

minimalism

artistic style that reduced art to bare essentials

50

TWO innovations that enabled Minimalist "hard-edge painting"

acrylic paint and the airbrush