art 51-100 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in art 51-100 Deck (99):
1

FOUR key inventions in architecture

post- and -lintel, the arc, the vault, and the dome

2

the great Depression

global economic crisis triggered by the 1929 US stock market crash

3

SIX factors determining how individuals were affected by the Great Depression

social and finance status, education, race, gender, and location

4

economic sector experiencing the most severe unemployment during the Great Depression

industrial sector

5

region of the US struck with drought during the Great Depression

the Midwest

6

What goal does a study of art history try to achieve?

to understand art and its meaning in its historical context

7

What four factors are considered in the study of a work of art?

formal qualities, function, artist and patron goals, and audience

8

To what three disciplines is art history closely related

anthropology, history, and sociology

9

With which two fields does art history sometimes overlap?

Aesthetics and criticism

10

Aesthetics

the philosophy inquiry into the nature and expression of beauty

11

art criticism

the explanation occurrent art events to the public via the press

12

What types of media do modern art historians consider "art"?

visual material with meaning or aesthetic appeal

13

On what kind of art did past art historians primarily focus?

fine art

14

What five media types qualify as fine arts?

paintings, prints, drawings, sculpture architecture

15

What types of artwork dismissed by earlier art historians are now included in our definition of "art"?

crafts

16

What three types of artworks are considered crafts?

textiles, pottery, and body art

17

What four objects are sometimes included in art history that may not be considered art by their audience?

mass-produced posters and advertisements, telephones, forks, and furniture

18

True or False: Art historians acknowledge that the meaning if a work of art varies for different viewers and time periods.

true; different time periods and people of different social class may interpret a work differently.

19

What two modes are used in historical analysis of art?

formal analysis and contextual analysis

20

largest patron of visual arts, theater, and literature during the Great Depression

the government

21

John Steinbeck

author of The Grapes of Wrath

22

institution which society trusted to resolve the problems of the Great Depression

the government

23

New Deal policies

depression-era governmental policies intended to help the economy, supported the arts and literature

24

Franklin D. Roosevelt

32nd president of the US 1933-1945 who enacted New Deal policies

25

Herbert Hoover

31st president of US, predecessor of Roosevelt

26

the First New Deal

New Deal policies enacted in 1933 under FD Roosevelt

27

What are the effects of adding a glaze to an oil painting?

Adding a glaze can give the painting a luminous glow that tempera cannot achieve.

28

What is the benefit of the slow drying time of oil paints?

Artists can continue working on an oil painting over a long period of time.

29

The opposite of glossy

matte

30

How did the invention of the paint tube transform the art of painting?

Artists no longer needed to mix their own pigments and could bring their paints outside the studio to paint in the open air.

31

The impact of the invention of the paint tube can be observed in the development of which artistic movement?

Impressionism

32

Who invented the first collapsible metal paint tube in 1841

John Rand, an american portrait painter

33

Oil paint traditionally uses what material as a binder?

linseed oil

34

This oilpainting technique involves painting the entire work in monochrome

grisaille

35

This is the final layer applied over an oil painting after it as dried, which gives the painting a glossy protective coating.

varnish

36

what is gesso

plaster, usually mixed with rabbit skin glue, which is applied to a canvas as a primer before the application of tempera

37

what is encaustic

a wax based paint

38

which ancient civilization used encaustic to paint grave markers

the egyptians

39

how is encaustic applied to a surface

molten wax is fused with the surface using hot irons

40

what is the most common waterbased paint

watercolor

41

casein is another water based paint that uses__as a binder

milk glue

42

water color is (opaque/transparent)

transparent

43

what are the advantages of gouache

it has more body than watercolor, dries slowly, creates brighter colors than watercolor and is useful for painting small details

44

This recently developed paint is made from synthetic materials and has a plastic binder

acrylic

45

oil paints became widely used during which era

the renaissance

46

true or false, in using watercolor, artists use white paint to make tint

false, artists will simply dilute the paint with more water to make tints

47

what is used as a binder in watercolor paint

gum arabic

48

in working with watercolor, the (lighter/darker) colors are applied first

lighter

49

what are the disadvantages of using watercolor

mistakes cannot be easily fixed, it lacks texture, it is difficult to learn, and it is rather unpredictable

50

what is the interval between c and g ascending

perfect fifth

51

what is the interval between a and c ascending

minor third

52

what is the interval between f and b ascending

tritone

53

what is the interval between ^6 and ^7 in a major scale

whole step

54

What determines the number of beats per second created by two interfering sound waves?

the number of beats per second created by two interfering sound waves is equal to the difference in frequency between the two waves (f1 - f2 = bps).

55

what is the interval between ^2 and ^3 in a major scale

whole step

56

what are the 3 varieties of minor scale

natural, melodic and harmonic

57

hat scale degree is always lowered in a minor scale

^3

58

how does harmonic minor differ from natural minor

the seventh scale degree is raised in harmonic minor

59

relative major and minor

major and minor scales that use the same pitches, but different tonics

60

parallel major and minor

major and minor scales that contain the same pitches

61

andante

at a walking pace

62

which scale degrees can be lowered in a blues scale

^3 and ^5

63

melody

a series of successive pitches perceived but the ear ti firm a whole cohesive

64

how many pitches can occur simultaneously in a melody

1

65

what is the fastest tempo

presto

66

what is the slowest tempo

lento or grave

67

andante

at a walking pace

68

what other name is used to refer to a full cadence?

authentic cadence

69

on what harmony does half cadence rest?

the dominant

70

theme

a set of phrases making up a complete melody which figures prominently in a piece of music

71

how does the sequence differ from repitition?

in sequence, the repetition occurs at varying pitch levels

72

what symbols are used to label complete sections of MUSICAL FORM IN A DIAGRAM?

capital letters

73

what TWO contrasting elements must a listener be able to recognize in musical variation?

continuity and alteration

74

what symbol is used to denote a variation on a theme?

a "prime" mark added to the same capital letter used for the theme

75

what meter is generally used for a twelve-bar blues?

duple

76

What THREE harmonies appear in a standard twelve-bar blues?

I, IV, and V (tonic, predominant and dominant)

77

How is contrast used in ternary form?

There is a contrasting middle section between the similar first and last sections.

78

What kind of cadence is used to end each section of ternary form?

authentic cadence

79

What name is ternary form also known by?

ABA form

80

rondo form

a form made up of a multiple sections, one of which recurs

81

how does rondo form differ from ternary form?

rondo form is less structured than tenury form and allows for more and different sections

82

how long are the sections of a standard 32-bar form?

8 measures each

83

What diagram is typically used to represent a 32-bar form

AABA

84

fugue subject

a single theme developed using a counterpoint

85

countersubject

a companion theme to the fugue subject

86

imitation

the approximate repetition of a melodic idea a a different pitch level

87

what musical texture best describes a fugue?

polyphony

88

At either of what TWO intervals from an original subject does the second line of a fugue usually imitiate the subject?

a fifth higher, or a fourth lower

89

what THREE main sections make up the sonata form

exposition, development, and reacapitualition

90

how many major musical ideas are present in a sonatat?

2

91

To what key does the sonata form usually modulate for the second idea

the dominant

92

how does the exposition of a sonata form generally end?

a strong cadence in the dominant key

93

Which section form is the most harmonically unstable?

the development

94

how does the development of a sonata form generally end?

a half cadence in the dominant key

95

How does the reacapitulation differ from the exposition in the sonata form

the second msuical idea does not modulate to the dominant key in the recapitulation

96

movements

shorter, distinct pieces that make up a longer work

97

what pattern of tempos usually appears in four-movemet, but not three-movement, sonata cycles?

a dance-like "minuet and trio" movement

98

performance practice

a study of how music actually

99

In a sound wave, what is the difference between compression and rarefaction?

A sound wave moving through the air causes pressure changes. Compression refers to the space where air pressure is increased, while rarefaction is the area where air pressure is decreased. One cycle of compression and rarefaction creates a complete sound wave.