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Flashcards in Art Deck (432):
1

intalgio printmaking

process where lines are inscribed into the matrix

2

Jesuits

Organization founded to convert non-Europeans to Catholicism

3

what is a flying buttress?

flying buttresses are external arches used in medieval cathedrals that allow for higher celings and window openings by counterbalancing the outward thrust of high, vaulted cielings.

4

name the three main orders of ancient greek architecture.

doric, ionic, and corinthian

5

which of the greek orders is the simplest?

doric

6

which of the three ancient greek orders is the most elaborate?

corinthian

7

what two materials are most commonly used for the construction of residential homes?

wood and brick

8

what two materials are most commonly used for hte construction of large commercial buildings?

steel and concrete

9

what are the three parts of the entablature in a greek temple?

the architrave, frieze, and cornice

10

what material was used to construct the eiffel tower?

wrought iron

11

the colosseum in rome is and example of what architectural feature?

the vault

12

the arch, the vault, and dome are similar in that all three features seek to stretch the boundaries of architecture by ____?

allowing for greater height and more space inside a building

13

what is a colonnade?

an arrangement of evenly-spaced columns that supports the entablature, arch, or roof.

14

name the two main orders of roman architecture

tuscan (a variant of the doric order) and composite (a combination of the ionic and corinthan oders)

15

this spanish architect is famous for his unique, organic shaped buildings made of stone

Antonio Gaudi

16

modern architects have tried to design buildings that are composed of (geometric/organic) shapes.

organic

17

who designed the first skyscraper?

louis sullivan, who designed the wainwright building in st. louis

18

This building was constructed in London in 1851 and consisted mainly of glass walls held together by slim iron rods.

the crystal palace, which was built for the world's fair in London.

19

what is environmental art?

art that makes use of the environment in which it is installed

20

when did environmental art first emerge?

the 1960s

21

true/false: environmental art is usually small in scale

false. it is usually large in scale

22

name a few characteristics of environmental art according to USAD

Large in scale, constructed on site, and only temporary.

23

true/false: environmental art often requires participation from the viewer

true

24

engraving

intalgio process using carving tools to directly inscribe lines into a matrix

25

etching

intalgio process using acid to etch grooves into exposed matrix

26

lithography

process where ink is applied to a wax image drawn on the matrix

27

screen prints

process where an image is transferred to a fabric frame and acts as a stencil

28

THREE materials comprising paint

pigments, binders, and solvents

29

fresco

technique where water-based paints are applied to wet plaster

30

tempera

water-based paint with egg binder that draws quickly and has a narrow tonal range

31

region of the US struck with drought during the Great Depression

the Midwest

32

encaustic

wax-based paint fused to surfaces with hot irons

33

gouache

water-based paint similar to tempera

34

watercolor

water-based paint tinted by adding water instead of white paint

35

acrylic paint

synthetic paint developed after World War II

36

FOUR basic methods of sculptures

carving modeling, casting, and construction

37

carving

removing original material to create a sculpture

38

modeling

adding materials to a surface to create a sculpture

39

casting

creating a plaster mold used to replicate the original sculpture

40

Alexander Calder

sculptor who created mobiles whose parts are moved by wind

41

environmental art/Earthworks

large sculpture that redefines the space where it is created

42

mixed media

artworks that use several art media

43

FIVE craft products that have come to be recognized as art forms

pottery, jewelry, fibers, glass, and wooden objects

44

pottery

craft medium, using natural materials such as clay

45

slip

liquid clay used to join edges of clay pieces

46

kiln

oven used to remove all moisture from a clay piece

47

TWO fiber art forms

weaving and quilting

48

architecture

the design and construction of buildings

49

post-and-lintel construction

technique where a beam is placed horizontally across another two beams

50

FOUR key inventions in architecture

post- and -lintel, the arc, the vault, and the dome

51

the great Depression

global economic crisis triggered by the 1929 US stock market crash

52

SIX factors determining how individuals were affected by the Great Depression

social and finance status, education, race, gender, and location

53

economic sector experiencing the most severe unemployment during the Great Depression

industrial sector

54

region of the US struck with drought during the Great Depression

the Midwest

55

What goal does a study of art history try to achieve?

to understand art and its meaning in its historical context

56

What four factors are considered in the study of a work of art?

formal qualities, function, artist and patron goals, and audience

57

To what three disciplines is art history closely related

anthropology, history, and sociology

58

With which two fields does art history sometimes overlap?

Aesthetics and criticism

59

Aesthetics

the philosophy inquiry into the nature and expression of beauty

60

art criticism

the explanation occurrent art events to the public via the press

61

What types of media do modern art historians consider "art"?

visual material with meaning or aesthetic appeal

62

On what kind of art did past art historians primarily focus?

fine art

63

What five media types qualify as fine arts?

paintings, prints, drawings, sculpture architecture

64

What types of artwork dismissed by earlier art historians are now included in our definition of "art"?

crafts

65

What three types of artworks are considered crafts?

textiles, pottery, and body art

66

What four objects are sometimes included in art history that may not be considered art by their audience?

mass-produced posters and advertisements, telephones, forks, and furniture

67

True or False: Art historians acknowledge that the meaning if a work of art varies for different viewers and time periods.

true; different time periods and people of different social class may interpret a work differently.

68

What two modes are used in historical analysis of art?

formal analysis and contextual analysis

69

largest patron of visual arts, theater, and literature during the Great Depression

the government

70

John Steinbeck

author of The Grapes of Wrath

71

institution which society trusted to resolve the problems of the Great Depression

the government

72

New Deal policies

depression-era governmental policies intended to help the economy, supported the arts and literature

73

Franklin D. Roosevelt

32nd president of the US 1933-1945 who enacted New Deal policies

74

Herbert Hoover

31st president of US, predecessor of Roosevelt

75

the First New Deal

New Deal policies enacted in 1933 under FD Roosevelt

76

What are the effects of adding a glaze to an oil painting?

Adding a glaze can give the painting a luminous glow that tempera cannot achieve.

77

What is the benefit of the slow drying time of oil paints?

Artists can continue working on an oil painting over a long period of time.

78

The opposite of glossy

matte

79

How did the invention of the paint tube transform the art of painting?

Artists no longer needed to mix their own pigments and could bring their paints outside the studio to paint in the open air.

80

The impact of the invention of the paint tube can be observed in the development of which artistic movement?

Impressionism

81

Who invented the first collapsible metal paint tube in 1841

John Rand, an american portrait painter

82

Oil paint traditionally uses what material as a binder?

linseed oil

83

This oilpainting technique involves painting the entire work in monochrome

grisaille

84

This is the final layer applied over an oil painting after it as dried, which gives the painting a glossy protective coating.

varnish

85

what is gesso

plaster, usually mixed with rabbit skin glue, which is applied to a canvas as a primer before the application of tempera

86

what is encaustic

a wax based paint

87

which ancient civilization used encaustic to paint grave markers

the egyptians

88

how is encaustic applied to a surface

molten wax is fused with the surface using hot irons

89

what is the most common waterbased paint

watercolor

90

casein is another water based paint that uses__as a binder

milk glue

91

water color is (opaque/transparent)

transparent

92

what are the advantages of gouache

it has more body than watercolor, dries slowly, creates brighter colors than watercolor and is useful for painting small details

93

This recently developed paint is made from synthetic materials and has a plastic binder

acrylic

94

oil paints became widely used during which era

the renaissance

95

true or false, in using watercolor, artists use white paint to make tint

false, artists will simply dilute the paint with more water to make tints

96

what is used as a binder in watercolor paint

gum arabic

97

in working with watercolor, the (lighter/darker) colors are applied first

lighter

98

what are the disadvantages of using watercolor

mistakes cannot be easily fixed, it lacks texture, it is difficult to learn, and it is rather unpredictable

99

name three advancements in technology since the renaissance that have improved painting

paint tubes, color theory, acrylic paint, and the use of synthetic material in paintbrushes.

100

when did artists begin to use canvas instead of wood panels for painting

artists began switching to canvas during the late renaissance. In fact, titian was one of the first to do this

101

who was the author of on the law of simultaneous colour contrast and the arrangement of coloured objects, written in 1839

eugene chevreul

102

what is print making

the process of producing multiple exact copies of an original design

103

what are the four main types of printmaking processes

relief, intaglio, lithography, and screen painting

104

4 powerful european rulers in the 17th and 18th centuries

empress maria theresa, peter the great, catherine the great, and louis XIV

105

jean jacques rousseau

enlightenment philosopher who protested the low standards of living of the peasantry

106

baroque

rich color and ornamentation in artworks from the baroque period

107

caravaggio

italian baroque painter renowned for use of chiaroscuro and naturalism

108

artemisia gentileschi

painter notable for her adaptation of caravaggios techniques

109

gianlorenzo bernini

17th century baroque sculptor, architect, painter, and draftsman known for the ecstasy of saint teresa

110

peter paul rubens

early 15th century painter known for his influential energetic and colorful works

111

francois boucher

18th century french painter influenced by jean antoine watteau depicting elegantly dressed nobles in the countryside

112

style that violated artistic subject-matter conventions

pop art

113

pop art icon whose work mocked the art world

Andy Warhol

114

pop artist who used comic book style illustration

Roy Lichenstein

115

pop artist who used industrial stencils in his art

Robert Indiana

116

artistic style that reduced art to bare essentials

Minimalism

117

acrylic paint and the airbrush

TWO innovations that enabled Minimalist "hard-edge painting"

118

Minimalist painter known for large, non-objective works

Frank Stella

119

David Smith and Don Flavin

TWO sculptors who created large abstract minimalist works

120

artistic style where subjects are depicted in sharp focus

Photorealism

121

TWO photorealist artists who revived Gustave Courbet's Realism

Chuck Close and Duanne Hanson

122

two artists who "packaged" landscapes with fabric and plastic

Christo and Jeanne-Claude

123

Cristo, Jeanne-Claude, Michael Heizer, and Robert Smithson

four artists associated with Earthworks

124

style combining theatre and art where artists themselves become the work

Performance Art

125

20th-century artistic style reintroducing traditional elements o exaggerating Modernist ones

Postmodernist

126

the Great Wall

the most famous work of Ancient Chinese art

127

Chines emperor whose tomb contains a lifesized clay army

Qin

128

period of Chinese history often referred to as a "golden age"

Tang dynasty

129

number of languages and dialects spoken in INdia

over 1600

130

TWO religions with strong influences on Indian art

Buddhism and Hinduism

131

religion with strong influence on Japanese art

Buddhism

132

African nation containing some of the oldest examples of cave painting

Namibia

133

Civilization that arose in Nigeria around 500 BCE influenced the Yoruba

Nok

134

Nigerian civilization that produced cast bronze portrait heads and other ceremonial objects

Benin Kingdom

135

ceremonial African and Oceania art pieces intended for use in performances

masks

136

islands composing Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia

Oceania

137

important expression of social structure in Polynesia

tatoos

138

cultural group in Melanesia who produced carved wooden shields

Asmat

139

location where Islam emerged

Arabian Peninsula

140

the holy book of Islam

the Quaran

141

formal analysis

analysis of the visual qualities of an artwork

142

What basic assumption informs formal analysis of art?

The artist makes decisions on the visual aspects of artwork that can reveal meaning of the piece.

143

What two skills are necessary for formal analysis?

observation and description

144

contextual analysis

looking outside of the artwork itself to determine its meaning

145

What four historical facts does contextual analysis examine?

cultural, social, religious, and economic context of an artwork

146

the Second New Deal

New Deal policies enacted in 1935 and later

147

THREE new deal agencies still in existence today

federal deposit insurance company, securities and exchange commission, and the social security system

148

political system that many people claimed FDR's policies would lead to

communism

149

the Red Scare

fear of communism in the US post- russian revolution

150

russian revolution that began the red scare in the US

bolshevik's revolution

151

man at the crossroads

diego rivera mural censored for its depiction of the bolshevik leader vladimir lenin

152

the rockefeller center

location of diego rivera's man at the crossroads

153

jacques louis david

neoclassical french painter who painted the oath of the horatii and was involved in the french revoluton

154

two reasons for government art patronage

job creation and morale improvement

155

palace of versailles

french palace built under louis XIV exemplifying barquoe design and monarchial power

156

the paris salon

influential annual art exhibition run by the french academy until the 19th century

157

diego velazquez

17th century court painter of king philip IV of spain who influenced the impressionist movement

158

jean antoine watteau

17th century french painter who led the emerging rococo movement and development the fete galante

159

realism

style of painting emphasizing the use of all features of a subject

160

gustave courbet

leader of realist movement who painted the stonebreakers

161

neoclassism

style influenced by enlightenment philosophy and classical works that emerged shortly before the french revolution

162

jacques louis david

neoclassical french painter who painted the oath of the horatii and was involved in the french revoluton

163

How large are megaliths?

up to 17 feet tall and 50 tons in weight

164

What megalithic formation is the most well-known

stonehenge....im so lonely

165

where is stonehenge located

on salisbury plain

166

when was stonehenge built?

between 2000 and 1000 B.C.E.

167

Who is Joel?

me gusta

168

Jerusalem mosque that is one of the oldest examples of Islamic architecture

Dome of the Rock

169

FIVE civilizations that flourished in the pre -colonial Americas

Olmec, Toltec, Maya, Inca, and Aztec

170

SIX basic formal qualities of art

line, shape, form, space, color, and texture

171

the path of a point moving through space

line

172

a series of uninterrupted dots or lines that the eye connects

implied line

173

neutrals

blacks, whites, greys

174

lines that suggest a peaceful feeling

horizontal lines

175

two types of lines that suggest a sense of activity

curved and jagged lines

176

the two-dimensional area of an object

shape

177

the three-dimensional representation of an object

form

178

forms that can be defined mathematically and convey order and stability

geometric forms

179

irregular forms that convey movement and rhythm

organic forms

180

element of art related to the organization of objects and the areas around them

space (in art)

181

space occupied by objects in an artwork

positive space

182

space surrounding object in an artwork

negative space

183

sculpture that can be viewed at any angle

freestanding sculptures

184

sculpture that projects from a surface

relief sculpture

185

visible borders of an object

contours

186

FOUR techniques used to create a sense of perspective

shading and highlighting, placement behind or in front of other objects, size, and level of detail

187

technique taking into account effects of airborne particles on appearance of distant objects

aerial/atmospheric perspective

188

technique founded on the visual phenomenon of vanishing points

linear perspective

189

name of a color

hue

190

three primary colors

red, blue, yellow

191

colors made by combining primary colors

secondary colors

192

colors made by combining a secondary color with an adjacent primary color

tertiary colors

193

visual representation of all hues

color wheel

194

the lightness or darkness of a color or a neutral

value

195

neutrals

blacks, whites, greys

196

what materials are used in stonehenge

sarsen and "bluestones"

197

two notable sculptures from the hellenistic period representing ideals of beauty

the Venus de Milo and the Laocoon Group

198

stones indigenous to the region around stonehenge

bluestones

199

what materials make up the outer ring of stonehenge

huge sarsen pieces arranged in post and lintel construction

200

what makes up the second outermost ring of stonehenge

bluestones

201

In all four printmaking processes, a latent image is created on a ___

printing plate

202

which printmaking processes involve the carving of a design onto the surface of the printing plate

relief and intaglio printmaking

203

name three types of material that are used for the plate in relief printmaking

wood, linoleum, and synthetic material

204

in relief printmaking, what tool is used to roll ink over the surface of the printing plate

a brayer

205

what tool is used to force the ink onto paper in relief and intaglio printmaking

a burnisher

206

what is the register in relief printmaking

a device that lines up plates for printing

207

what is a monotype

a combination of printmaking and painting in which an artist paints onto a printing plate and then transfers the impression onto paper

208

this method of printmaking is much like relief printmaking, but works in the opposite manner

intaglio printmaking

209

describe intaglio printmaking

the design is engraved into a wood or metal plate and en ink is laid into the grooves to print the image

210

the process of cutting lines into the surface of a plate is called

engraving

211

etching is an (relief/intaglio) process

intaglio

212

describe the etching technique

the design is incised into a wax covered metal plate. the plate is then immersed in acid, which eats away at the exposed design. ink is then laid into the grooves create by the acid.

213

what are the two main types of intaglio printmaking

engraving (non-acid) and etching (acid)

214

what is drypoint

an intaglio technique that involves the scratching of the design onto the plate with a sharp point

215

what is the difference between drypoint and engraving

drypoint makes incisions by scratching, while engraving does this by carving. Engraved lines are therefore smooth and hard while drypoint makes soft, fuzzy lines.

216

what is burr

the raised metal left around the edge of a design in engraving or drypoint.

217

what is mezzotint

mezzotint is an intaglio process in which the surface of a plate is roughened evenly. the image is then smoothed into the plate. this process is known for its ability to create high quality tone and shades.

218

who invented mezzotint

prince rupert in 1649

219

who invented lithography

alois senefelder in 1798

220

describe the lithography process

the image is drawn onto the plate with a waxy pencil or crayon. the plate is the immersed in water, which remains only on the non-oily parts of the plate. the ink that is then applied only sticks to the oily design and resists the water. the image is then transferred to paper with a press.

221

What five aspects of context may art historians examine?

patronage, viewer access, physical location, cost, and subject

222

What assumption does art history make as it examine changes in style over time?

The work of one generation of artists will impact the next in the same cultural setting

223

How do art historians often begin their analysis of a work of art?

close examination of the work

224

Why is direct examination of a work better than examination of a reproduction?

many qualities of an artwork are lost by examining reproducing

225

What three qualities of an artwork are lost when examine a reproduction?

size, texture, and some color quality

226

Why might an art historian choose to examine a reproduction instead of the original work?

The original work may be damaged or lost

227

What artistic sources may art historians examine to understand the context of an artwork?

associated studies such as sketches and other works by the same artist or contemporaries

228

What three written sources may art historians use in contextual examination?

letters between the artist and patron, other documents regarding the artwork's commission and art criticism

229

What three factors may art historians consider when determining the context of a work?

cost of materials. the function of the work, and literature, music, theater, and history of the time

230

What two methods may art historians use to immerse themselves in an artistic context?

interviews with artists an consumers of art and participant observation

231

When did art history begin as an academic discipline?

the mid 18th century

232

Which Roman historian sought to analyze historical and contemporary art?

Pliny the Elder

233

What book, analyzing historical and contemporary art, did Pliny the Elder write?

Natural History

234

Which Italian author and artist wrote The Lives of the Artists?

Giorgio Vasari

235

Johann Joachim Wickelmann

Enlightenment scholar, shifted the focus of art history to study of stylistic development over time

236

What aspect of art analysis received increasing emphasis in the 19th and 20th centuries?

the relationship between formal qualities of a work and its context

237

What group has recently proposed a revised view of art history?

feminist art historians

238

What have feminist historians noticed about traditional art history?

It tended to focus on white men

239

How has art history as a discipline changed in response to revisionist views?

Art history has become more international, multicultural, and inclusive

240

What major trend is observable in the changing focus of art history over time?

Artistic genius and individualism has diminished while "visual culture" has increased

241

How have we gleaned most of our information about the earliest humans?

artifacts from earlier cultures

242

Of what materials are most surviving accent artworks made?

stone, metal, or fired clay

243

pop art

style that violated artistic subject-matter conventions

244

Andy Warhol

pop art icon whose work mocked the art world

245

Roy Lichenstein

pop artist who used comic-book style illustration

246

Robert Indiana

pop artist who used industrial stencils in his art

247

minimalism

artistic style that reduced art to bare essentials

248

TWO innovations that enabled Minimalist "hard-edge painting"

acrylic paint and the airbrush

249

Frank Stella

Minimalist painter known for large, non-objective works

250

TWO sculptors who created large abstract minimalist works

David Smith and Dan Flavin

251

Photorealism

artistic style where subject are depicted in strong focus

252

TWO photorealist artist who revived Gustave Courbet's Realism

Chuck Close and Duane Hanson

253

Christo and Jeanne-Claude

two artists who "packaged" landscapes with fabric and plastic

254

four artists associated with Earthworks

Christ, Jeanne-Claude, Michael Heizer and Robert Smithson

255

Performance Art

style combining theater and art where artists themselves become the work

256

Postmodernist

20th-century artistic style reintroducing traditional elements or exaggerating Modernist ones

257

the most famous work of Ancient Chinese art

the Great Wall

258

Chinese emperor whose tomb contains a life-sized clay army

Qin

259

Tang dynasty

period of Chinese history often referred to as a "golden age"

260

number of languages and dialects spoken in India

over 1600

261

TWO religions with strong influences on Indian art

Buddhism and Hinduism

262

religion with strong influence on Japanese art

Buddhism

263

African nation containing some of the oldest examples of cave painting

Namibia

264

Nok

civilization that arose in Nigeria around 500 B.C.E., influenced the Yoruba

265

Benin Kingdom

Nigerian civilization that produced cast bronze portrait heads and other ceremonial objects

266

ceremonial African and Oceania art pieces intended for use in performances

masks

267

term used to Renaissance artists following Botticelli Donatello

High Renaissance artists

268

what makes up the innermost ring of stonehenge

a horsehoe shaped row of five lintel topped sarsen stones

269

where are the largest stones in stonehenge found

in the innermost ring

270

where is the heel stone relative to stonehenge

in the east of stonehenge

271

what does the heel stone mark in relation to stonehenge

the place where the sun rises on the midsummer solstice as seen from the center of stonehenge

272

where is mesopotamia

the valley between the tigris and euphrates rivers

273

what geographic characteristic weakened the mesopotamian civilizations

a lack of natural barriers to ward off invaders

274

why do so few examples of mesopotamian art exist

mesopotamians used perishable materials and region witnessed much conflict and destruction

275

jean dominique ingres

pupil of jacques louis david who exemplified neoclassical style

276

eugene delacroix

painter and leaderof the romantic movement

277

romanticism

style returning to the barquoe emphasis on emotional qualities

278

3 important romantic artists

eugene deacroix william blake and theodore gericault

279

realism

style of painting emphasizing the use of all features of a subject

280

gustave courbet

leader of realist movement who painted the stonebreakers

281

the brightness or purity of a color

intensity

282

warm colors

red, orange, yellow

283

cool colors

green, blue, violet

284

the "true" color of an object

local color

285

the effect that special lighting has on the colors of objects

optical color

286

how things feel or how we think they would feel

texture

287

organization of the elements of art

composition

288

movement or pattern in a work of art

rhythm

289

the two aspects of repetition

motif and pattern

290

a single element of a pattern

motif

291

equal distribution of visual weight in an artwork

balance

292

slight variation of shapes or objects around the central axis

approximate symmetry

293

visual balance of disparate objects

asymmetrical balance

294

point where the eye tends to rest

focal point

295

relationships between objects' sizes in artwork

proportion

296

FIVE drawing tools

pencil, pen, charcoal, crayon, felt-tip marker

297

drawing technique used to change color values

shading

298

shading with closely set parallel lines

hatching

299

shading with crisscrossed lines

crosshatching

300

shading with varying densities of small colored dots

stippling

301

FOUR styles of printmaking

relief, intaglio, lithograph, and screen painting

302

printing plate in which the image is created

matrix

303

process where pieces of matrix are cut away so the image projects from the surface

relief printmaking

304

tool used to apply ink to a plate

brayer

305

TWO tools used to transfer ink from a plate to a page

printing press and burnisher

306

an environemental artist must first do what before beginning a project?

recieve approval for his or her work from community and governmental agencies

307

this environmental artist usedr rocks and algae to create a huge spiral in the great salt lake

robert smithson

308

this environmental artist surrounded islands in florida with pink polyester and wrapped pont neuf of paris with plastic

christo

309

this environmental artist is known for his ice sculptures and his arrangements of leaves and twigs floating on water

andy goldsworthy

310

what structures are the greatest known works of the sumerian reestablishment period?

ziggurats built at city centers

311

what THREE purposes did ziggurats serve?

temples, administrative, and economic centers

312

which city state conquered Mesopotamia in 1792 BCE?

babylonia

313

who was the king of babylonia during its conquest of mesopotamia?

Hammurabi

314

what legal achievment was hammurabi's enduring legacy?

he codified the babylonian law into the Code of Hammurabi

315

what two works of art from hammurabi's rule and best known today?

a stone steele engraved with hammurabi's code and a relief sculpture of hammurabi

316

where is the stone stele containing hammurabi's code kept?

the lourve museum

317

which civilization dominated northern mesopotamia from 900 to 600 bce?

the assyrians

318

most notable medium of assyrian artwork

relief carvings

319

civilization which controlled Mesopotamia between 612 and 538 bce

babylonians

320

two important architectural constructs built during the Neo-Babylonian period

the hanging gardens and the Ishtar Gate

321

architectural style that influenced the design of the palace at Persepolis

Egyptian

322

four major works produced during the Ancient Egyptian period

Sphynx, pyramids of Giza, Pharoah statues, and head of Queen Nefertiti

323

hierarchal scale

determining figures relative size in an artwork according to their social status

324

egyptian artifact exemplyfying the use of hierarchal scale

the Palette of Kind Narmer

325

function of Palette of King Narmer

mixing cosmetics

326

main image of palette of king narmer

narmer holding the hair of a fallen enemy and preparing to deliver a death blow

327

fractional representation

a method of presenting figures so that the body is shown as clearly as possible

328

what burial practices did egyptians observe?

mummification and entombment with furnishings, jewelry, and servants

329

egyptian king whose famously well hidden tomb was uncovered in 1922

tutankhamen

330

kingdom that covered much of africa during the reign of ancient egypt

nubia

331

cycladic

aegean culture that flourished from 3200 to 2000 bce in the cyclades

332

minoan

aegean culture which supplanted the cycladic culture on crete, peaking around 1000 bce

333

knossos

central city in minoan culture, believed to be the home of the minotaur

334

minotaur

half man, half bull creature believed to have lived in a maze in knossos

335

two major forms of minoan painting

frescoes on palace walls and pottery designs

336

mycenaean

aegean culture whose rise coincided with the fall of the minoans

337

mycenae

central city of the mycenaean culture

338

material used in the best known mycenaean works of art

gold

339

archaic period

period in history lasting from 660 to 475 bce

340

two regions whose sculptures influenced archaic greek sculptures

egypt and mesopotamia

341

two column styles used in archaic greek temple construction

doric and ionic

342

corinthian style of pottery decoration

depicting figures against a floral ornamented background

343

common column style used in early classical period temples

doric

344

contrapposto, or counter positioning

greek pose invented to show the body to its best advantage

345

middle classical period

art historical period following the early classical period

346

late classical period

period in which architecture declined after athen's defeat in the peloponnesian war

347

corinthian column design

column design which became popluar in the late classical period

348

hellenistic period

art historical period that saw increased influence of eastern civilizations on greek works

349

two notable sculptures from the hellenistic period representing ideals of beauty

the Venus de Milo and the Lacoon Group

350

italian civilization whose art represents a transistion from greek to roman artistic styles

Etruscan

351

art medium for which etruscan civilization is largely known

tomb decoration

352

two roman innovations in the fields pf architecture and engineering

concrete and curved arch

353

two surviving buildings that exemplify roman engineering genius

the colosseum and the pantheon

354

type of sculpture adorning roman triumphal arches and tombs

relief sculpture

355

impressionism

style of that grew out of dissatisfaction with strict salon rules

356

edouard manet

predecessor of the impressionists juxtaposing bright contrasting colors in his work

357

which civilization lived in mesopotamia from 4000 to 2340 B.C.E.

the sumerians

358

what wads the central aspect of sumerian life

religion

359

temple like structures that developed out of mesoptamian platforms

ziggurats

360

who took over sumer around 2340 BCE

Sargon of akkad

361

how did the akkadians deal with sumerian culture

assimilation

362

what was the akkadean equivalent of sumerian loyalty

loyalty to the kin g

363

who overthrew the akkadians around 2150 BCE

the guti

364

how did the akkadian loyalty to the king affect akkadian art

akkadians erected sculptures of their rulers

365

who took control of sumer about 60 years after the guti invasion

sumerians

366

who was named king when the summering retook control of sumer

king ur

367

what is joel delong's middle name

fabio

368

what did the dog say to the tree

bark

369

why did the chicken cross the street

idk

370

what does everyone love.... to eat

poop

371

Italian city which contain Byzantine mosaic walls

Ravenna

372

Constantinople building considered on of the greatest architectural achievements in history

the Hagia Sophia

373

central institution in medieval society

the Church

374

two materials used as paper during the medieval period

vellum and parchment

375

two notable medieval illuminated manuscripts

the Book of Kells and the Coronation Gospels

376

medieval culture noted for metalwork

nomadic Germanic peoples

377

Medieval culture noted for woodwork

Vikings

378

hybrid artistic style created in Viking invasions of England and Ireland

Hiberno-Saxon

379

Romanesque churches

churches based around Roman arches, built in the early part of the late Medieval

380

barrel vault

tunnel of arches used in Romanesque churches

381

vault

arch-shaped structure used as a ceiling or roof000
support

382

architectural style commonly used in churches that developed in the early 12th century

Gothic style

383

ribbed vault

framework stone ribs under the intersection of vaulted ceiling sections

384

flying buttresses

additional bracing material and arches placed on the exterior of buildings

385

Giotto di Bondone

early Renasiassance FLorentine artist best known for his frescoes

386

primary patrons of art during the Renaissance

wealthy families

387

social class including painters and sculptors that was looked down upon until the REnaissance

artisans

388

Lorenzo Ghiberti

sculptor who won a FLoretine competition in 1400 to design doors of a new baptistery

389

Filippo Brunelleschi

Florentine sculptor and architect who helped develop linear perspective

390

development in perspective created by Filippo

linear (single vanishing point) perspective

391

Massaccio

Renaissance painter known for using linear and aerial perspective

392

Donatello

Renaissance artist widely considered the founder of modern sculpture

393

The Birth of Venus

painting by Botticelli that established an enduring image of female beauty

394

How do environmental factors influence the preservation of artifacts?

Dry climates delicate materials while humid areas cause them to deteriorate

395

Why has art history tended to focus on Western art?

Western areas have the best preserved and most easily accessible artworks

396

Where is the Chauvet Cave?

Southeastern France

397

When were the Chauvet Cave paintings made?

30,000 BCE

398

When were the Chauvet Cave paintings discovered?

1994

399

What two materials were used in the Chauvet Cave paintings?

red ochre and black charcoal

400

What five animals are depicted in the Chauvet Cave paintings?

horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalos, and mammoths

401

In what age were the Chauvet Cave paintings created?

The Old Stone Age

402

In what two countries have cave paintings been discovered?

France and Spain

403

Where are the most famous later cave paintings found?

Lascaux and Altamira

404

When were the later cave paintings created?

c. 13,000-11,000 BCE

405

Wht opinion did scholars originally hold towards the cave paintings?

They were considered scribbling by primitive cavemen

406

What belief do scholars now hold about the cave paintings?

They were created by skilled artists and served ritual functions

407

What artwork is the most famous OLd Stone Age fertility sculpture?

Venus (or Woman) of Willendorf

408

edouard manet

predecessor of the impressionists, juxtaposing bright, contrasting colors in his works

409

claude monet

impressionist painter who inspired the movement's name with his painting impression sunrise

410

4 notable impressionist painters

edouard manet, claude monet, camille pissaro and alfred sisley

411

paul cezanne

influential post-impressionist painter who redefined art in terms of form and influenced cubism

412

post-impressionism

style partly influenced by impressionism, that emphasized vivid colors

413

georges seurat

post-impressionist painter who emphasized the scientific rules of color and developed optical mixing techniques

414

vincent van gogh

artist used color to portray emotions, paint night cafe

415

paul gauguin

painter who emphasized intense color in his works

416

2 inventions that6 allowed impressionists to paint outdoors

chemical-based paints and the paint tube

417

invention that questioned the ned to capture reality in painting

camera

418

edgar degas

impressionist painter influenced by japanese art

419

pre-raphaelites

artists who returned to simple, pre-renaissance styles

420

art nouveau

style of decor, architecture and design popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

421

henri matisse

leader of fauves movement that used highly intense, arbitrary colors

422

cubism

style art influenced by african art that used form in new ways

423

2 artists who developed the cubist style

pablo picasso and georges braque

424

die brucke

group of german artists who combined fauvist color with emotional intensity

425

2 german artists included in die brucke

ernst ludwig kirchner and emile nolde

426

expressionism

artistic style that attempted to express abstract consciousness

427

der blaue reiter

german expressionist group led by vasily kandinsky that painted completely abstract works

428

2 pioneering artists who used total abstraction

kazimir malevich

429

global development that helped shift the focus of the art world from paris to new york

WWI

430

first major showing of modern art in the united states

the armory show

431

nude descending staircase

marcel duchamp painting shown at the armory show

432

2 regions where the Catholic Church sought to maintain its dominance during the baroque era

Spain and Italy