Arterial venous Lymphatic Systems Flashcards Preview

A. White- Human Physiology > Arterial venous Lymphatic Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arterial venous Lymphatic Systems Deck (62):
1

Name 3 of the four characteristics of the capillary wall

  1. They have a unicellular layer of endothelial cells
  2. they have a thin basement membrane
  3. total wall thickness= 0.5 um
  4. internal capillary diameter = 4-9 um

2

You could _________ cardiac output by causing less distensibility in the _________ system via the _________ nervous system

increase, venous, sympathetic

3

Is there a difference in distensibility between the systemic veins and pulmonary veins?

No, pulmonary vein distensibilities are about the same as for sytemic veins

4

How would you, using ang equation,defin vascular distensibility?

Vascular distensibility = increase in volume / (increase in pressure X original volume)

5

What are some characteristics of capillary plasmalemmal vesicles ? 

  • they are formed from caveolins
  • they play a role in endocytosis ands transcytosis

6

The most important means for the exchange of substances between the blood and the interstitial fluid?

Diffusion

7

What is mean arterial pressure?

Mean arterial pressure is the average arterial pressure with respect to time

8

Although rare, small _______ of free fluid do form in the interstitium?

Rivulets

9

What information is vascular complaince does relay?

The total quantity of blood (ml) that can be stored in a given portion of the circulation for each mm Hg rise in pressure

10

What types of substances have to diffuse through the intercellular pores/ clefts of capillaries?

Non-lipid-soluble substances

11

The greater the stroke volume, the ________ the pulse pressure?

greater

12

How does atheroclerosis affect pulse pressure?

Increases

13

The rate of water diffusion through capillary membranes is __________ times faster than the flow of plasma within the capillary?

80

14

Why/how does aortic valve stenosis cause abnormal countors of the pressure puls wave?

  • The diameter of the aortic valve opening is reduced significantly, and the aortic pressure pulse is significantly reduced
  • blood flow through the aortic valve is diminished

15

The capacitance of arteries _______ with age?

decrease

16

Name 3 of the 4 factors that increase lymph flow ( and interstial fluid pressure)

  1. elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure
  2. decreased plasma colloid pressure
  3. increased interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure
  4. increased permeability of capillaries

17

Lipid soluble substances can diffuse readily through capillary _________  ___________?

cell membranes

18

What is the most important determinant of pulse pressure?

Th stroke volume output of the heart

19

What equation would you use to calculate net filtration pressure?

NFP = Pc - Pif - Πp + Πif

  • Pc = capillary pressure (outward)
  • Pif  = interstial fluid pressure (inward)
  • Πp = plasma colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressure (inward)
  • Πif = interstitial colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressure (outward)

20

Capacitance is _______ proportional to elastance?

Inversely

21

Which vessels are more distensible, arteries or veins?

veins

22

Name some characteristics of arterioles

  • Small arterioles control blood flow to each tissue
  • the diameters of arteriole are controlled by local conditions in the tissues
  • arterioles are highly muscular
    • continuous muscular coat is lost in metarterioles

23

Capcitance is _________ proportional to volume and _________ proportional to pressure?

driectly, inversely

24

The greater the amount of elastic tissue in a blood vessel, the ________ the compliance?

lower

25

Name the 4 conditions that can cause abnormal contours of pressure pulse wave

  1. Aortic valve stenosis
  2. atherosclerosis
  3. patent ductus arteriosus
  4. aortic regurgitation

26

How would you, using an equation, describe vascular compliance?

Vascular compliance = increase in volume / increase in pressure

27

What are 2 factors that could affect pulse pressure?

  1. Stroke volume of the heart
    • diastolic pressure remains unchanged during ventricular systole; pulse pressure increses to the same extent as the sytolic pressure
  2. Compliance of the arterial tree
    • decreases in compliance (aging)

28

What is the most important factor for regulating vasomotion?

The concentration of oxygen in the tissues

29

How would you calculate compliance using ditensibility and volume?

compliance = distensibility X volume

30

The rate of diffusion is ________ proportional to the concentration differences of diffusing substances?

directly

31

How would you calculate the rate of lymph flow?

Rate of lymph flow = (interstitial fluid pressure) X (activity of lymphatic pump)

32

Veins are about _______ times more distensible than arteries?

8

33

The passage of substances through the interstitium is mostly via _________ rather than ________?

diffusion, flow

34

What is compliance?

  • A measure of the ease with which a hollow viscus may be distended
  • the volume change reulting from the application of a unit pressure differential beteen the inside and outside of the viscus
  • reciprocal of elastance

35

Using a calculation how could you determin pulse pressure?

Pulse pressure = stroke volume / arterial compliance

36

Plasmalemmal vessicles are formed from what?

Caveolins

37

Why/ how does patent ductus arteriosus cause abnormal contours of the pressure pulse wave?

  • half or more of the cardiac output flows back into the pulmonary artery and lung blood vessels
  • diastolic pressure falls very low before the next heartbeat

38

Because a greater fraction of the cardiac cycle is spent in _________ rather than in _________, mean arterial pressure is NOT the simple average of diastolic and systolic pressure?

diastole, systole

39

How would aging affect pulse pressure?

It would increase it because there is a decrease in compliance of the arterial system

40

Name 2 of 3 factors that increase venous return (and inrease right atrial pressure)

  1. increased blood volume
  2. increased peripheral venous pressures due to increased large vessel tone
  3. dialation of arterioles

41

Why do substances diffuse through the interstitium rather than flow?

The large number of proteoglycan filaments found in the interstitium make it difficult for substance to flow freely

42

Capacitance describes the _______ of blood vessels?

distensibilty

43

These determine the direction of diffusion into or out of a capillary?

Starling forces

44

When does lymph flow reach its maximum?

When the interstitial pressure rises slightly above the atmospheric pressure.

45

What is distensibility?

The ability to become stretched, dilated or enlarged

46

The greater the amount of elastic tissue in a blood vessel, the ________ the elastance?

Greater

47

What are the function of capillary slit pores?

Allow for the diffusion of water, water-soluble ions, and small molecules

48

Why/ how does aortic regurgitation cause abnomrmal contours of the pressure pulse wave?

  • the aortic valve is absent or will not close completely
  • aortic pressure maf fall all the way to 0 between heartbeats

49

How does the pressure in peripheral veins compare to that of the right atrial pressure in a person lying down?

The peripheral veous pressure is +4 to +6 mmHg greater

50

Elastance is a measure of what?

A measure of the tendency of a hollow viscus to recoil toward its original dimensions upon the removal of a distending or collapsing force

51

What is pulse pressure?

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressures

52

What is the capillary filtration and how is it utilized with the net filtration pressure?

  • Kf
  • takes into consideration the number and size of pores in capillaries
  • filtration = Kf X NFP

 

53

Name the four starling forces

  1. capillary pressure (outward force)
  2. interstitial fluid pressure (inward force)
  3. capillary plasma colloid osmotic pressure (inward force)
  4. interstial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (outward force)

54

Will the mean arterial pressure lie closure to the diastolic pressure or systolic pressure?

Diastolic pressure

55

What is equal to the sum of all of the stalring forces?

Net filtration pressure

56

Is there a difference in distensibility between systemic arteries and pulmonary arteries?

Yes, pulmonary artery distensibilities are about 6 times that of systemic arteries

57

What is central venous pressure?

Pressure in the right atrium

58

True or False: capacitance is much greater for veins than arteries?

True

59

Name some organs whose capillaries have pores

  • liver
  • GI tract
  • kidneys

60

How would you calculate mean arterial pressure?

Mean arterial pressure = diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure

61

Do lymphatic vessels contin valves?

Yes, one-way valves

62

When intra-abdominal pressure increases, in order for blood to travel from the legs to the heart through the abdominal veins, what must happen?

The venous pressure in the legs must increase above the the abdominal pressure