Arteriosclerosis Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular > Arteriosclerosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arteriosclerosis Deck (11):
1

What are the three forms of ateriosclerosis?

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Ateriolosclerosis
  • Monckeberg Medial Calcific Sclerosis 

2

What is atherosclerosis?

  • Intimal plaque that obstructs blood flow in large and medium sized arteries. 

3

What specific arteries are most commonly affected in ahterosclerosis?

  • Abodominal artery
  • Coronary artery
  • Popliteal artery
  • Internal carotid artery 
  •  

4

What are the modifiable risk factos of atherosclerosis?

  • HTN
  • Hypercholesterolemia 
  • Smoking 
  • Diabetes

5

What are the non-modifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis?

  • Age
  • Sex
  • Estrogen
  • Genetics 

6

Describe the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

Endothelial cell damage ⇒ Lipids leak into intima ⇒ Accumulated LDL is oxidized and consumed by macrophages ⇒ LDL full macrophages become foam cells ⇒ Inflammation ensues ⇒ smooth muscle cells migrate to area via PDGF and TGF-ß ⇒ form fibrous plaque with outer layer of smooth muscle (complex atheroma)

7

Complications of atherosclerosis 

  • Stenosis of medium sized vessels results in impaired blood flow and ischemia leading to:
    • Peripheral vascular dz
    • Angina
    • Ischemic bowel dz
  • Plaque rupture with thrombosis results MI and stroke
  • Plaque rupture with embolization results in atherosclerotic emboli
    • Embloi characterized by cholesterol crystals
  • Weakening of vessel wall results in aneurysms

8

What is arteriolosclerosis?

  • Narrowing of small vessels
  • Two types:
    • Hyaline arteriolosclerosis
    • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

9

What is hyaline arteriolosclerosis?

  • Thickening of of hyaline in vessel walls form protein being pushed into vessel wall
  • Seen in primary HTN or DM

10

What is hyperplastic arterilolosclerosis?

  • Hyperplasia of smooth muscle thickens vessel wall
  • Produces onion skin appearance
  • Seen in malignant HTN

11

What is Monckeberg?

  • Calcification in the media of arteries.
  • Usually benign
    • Does not cause narrowing of lumen thus does not obstruct blood flow
  • Intima is not involved.
  • Seen as finding on x-ray or mammography